MAI | Media Cloud – MAI

Mobile telephone provider O2 Germany presented a spectacular showcase at the CeBIT 2005 trade show. Their approach featured the new Versa Pixelsingle dots that grouped together produced over 28,000 points of moving light. The technology was adapted for the event by Element Labs, a company known for making exceptional designs possible through the convergence of light and video.

The innovative concept and design, from Munich Studios KMS Team and Schmidhuber + Partner, was creating buzz even prior to the event. Installed by Mixed Pixels, the display consisted of Versa Pixels placed at the end of plastic tubes suspended from the ceiling. The varying tube lengths and spacing created distinct colorized pixels that merged into waves of images, giving visitors the impression of moving beneath a three dimensional Media Cloud with images wafting across it.

According to Rudi Hennies, the projects technical manager, The result absolutely stunning. Everyone attending CeBIT was mesmerized by the O2 ceiling; it was definitely the most popular thing at the show. Hennies also noted, The entire system was extremely well designed and much easier to install than anyone expected. Element Labs provided us with excellent support, and I look forward to working with them again in the future.

The O2 exhibit also included a radio station that took advantage of the Tubes remarkable adaptability. Changing content was effortless through the power of computer-controlled programming. During radio broadcasts, the tube content morphed to reflect radio news items, programs, and other events.


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MAI | Media Cloud – MAI

Cloud – Wikipedia

In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol comprising a visible mass of minute liquid droplets or frozen crystals, both of which are made of water or various chemicals. The droplets or particles are suspended in the atmosphere above the surface of a planetary body.[1] On Earth, clouds are formed by the saturation of air in the homosphere (which includes the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere). The air may be cooled to its dew point by a variety of atmospheric processes or it may gain moisture (usually in the form of water vapor) from an adjacent source. Nephology is the science of clouds which is undertaken in the cloud physics branch of meteorology.

Cloud types in the troposphere, the atmospheric layer closest to Earth’s surface, have Latin names due to the universal adaptation of Luke Howard’s nomenclature. It was formally proposed in December 1802 and published for the first time the following year. It became the basis of a modern international system that classifies these tropospheric aerosols into five physical forms and three altitude levels or tages. These physical types, in approximate ascending order of convective activity, include stratiform sheets, cirriform wisps and patches, stratocumuliform layers (mainly structured as rolls, ripples, and patches), cumuliform heaps and tufts, and very large cumulonimbiform heaps that often show complex structure. The physical forms are cross-classified by altitude levels to produce ten basic genus-types or genera. Some of these basic types are common to more than one form or more than one tage, as illustrated in the stratocumuliform and cumuliform columns of the classification table below. Most genera can be divided into species, some of which are common to more than one genus. These can be subdivided into varieties, some of which are common to more than one genus or species.

Cirriform clouds that form higher up in the stratosphere and mesosphere have common names for their main types, but are sub-classified alpha-numerically rather than with the elaborate system of Latin names given to cloud types in the troposphere. They are relatively uncommon and are mostly seen in the polar regions of Earth. Clouds have been observed in the atmospheres of other planets and moons in the Solar System and beyond. However, due to their different temperature characteristics, they are often composed of other substances such as methane, ammonia, and sulfuric acid as well as water.

The origin of the term cloud can be found in the old English clud or clod, meaning a hill or a mass of rock. Around the beginning of the 13th century, it was extended as a metaphor to include rain clouds as masses of evaporated water in the sky because of the similarity in appearance between a mass of rock and a cumulus heap cloud. Over time, the metaphoric term replaced the original old English weolcan to refer to clouds in general.[2][3]

Ancient cloud studies were not made in isolation, but were observed in combination with other weather elements and even other natural sciences. In about 340 BC the Greek philosopher Aristotle wrote Meteorologica, a work which represented the sum of knowledge of the time about natural science, including weather and climate. For the first time, precipitation and the clouds from which precipitation fell were called meteors, which originate from the Greek word meteoros, meaning ‘high in the sky’. From that word came the modern term meteorology, the study of clouds and weather. Meteorologica was based on intuition and simple observation, but not on what is now considered the scientific method. Nevertheless, it was the first known work that attempted to treat a broad range of meteorological topics.[4]

The magazine De Mundo (attributed to Pseudo-Aristotle) noted:[5]

Cloud is a vaporous mass, concentrated and producing water. Rain is produced from the compression of a closely condensed cloud, varying according to the pressure exerted on the cloud; when the pressure is slight it scatters gentle drops; when it is great it produces a more violent fall, and we call this a shower, being heavier than ordinary rain, and forming continuous masses of water falling over earth. Snow is produced by the breaking up of condensed clouds, the cleavage taking place before the change into water; it is the process of cleavage which causes its resemblance to foam and its intense whiteness, while the cause of its coldness is the congelation of the moisture in it before it is dispersed or rarefied. When snow is violent and falls heavily we call it a blizzard. Hail is produced when snow becomes densified and acquires impetus for a swifter fall from its close mass; the weight becomes greater and the fall more violent in proportion to the size of the broken fragments of cloud. Such then are the phenomena which occur as the result of moist exhalation.

Several years after Aristotle’s book, his pupil Theophrastus put together a book on weather forecasting called The Book of Signs. Various indicators such as solar and lunar halos formed by high clouds were presented as ways to forecast the weather. The combined works of Aristotle and Theophrastus had such authority they became the main influence in the study of clouds, weather and weather forecasting for nearly 2000 years.[4]

After centuries of speculative theories about the formation and behavior of clouds, the first truly scientific studies were undertaken by Luke Howard in England and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck in France. Howard was a methodical observer with a strong grounding in the Latin language and used his background to classify the various tropospheric cloud types during 1802. He believed that the changing cloud forms in the sky could unlock the key to weather forecasting. Lamarck had worked independently on cloud classification the same year and had come up with a different naming scheme that failed to make an impression even in his home country of France because it used unusual French names for cloud types. His system of nomenclature included twelve categories of clouds, with such names as (translated from French) hazy clouds, dappled clouds and broom-like clouds. By contrast, Howard used universally accepted Latin, which caught on quickly after it was published in 1803.[6] As a sign of the popularity of the naming scheme, the German dramatist and poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe composed four poems about clouds, dedicating them to Howard. An elaboration of Howard’s system was eventually formally adopted by the International Meteorological Conference in 1891.[6]

Howard’s original system established three physical categories or forms based on appearance and process of formation: cirriform (mainly detached and wispy), cumuliform or convective (mostly detached and heaped, rolled, or rippled), and non-convective stratiform (mainly continuous layers in sheets). These were cross-classified into lower and upper tages. Cumuliform clouds forming in the lower level were given the genus name cumulus from the Latin word for heap,[7] while low stratiform clouds took the genus name stratus from the Latin word for a flattened or spread out sheet. Cirriform clouds were identified as always upper level and given the genus name cirrus from the Latin for hair. From this genus name, the prefix cirro- was derived and attached to the names of upper level cumulus and stratus, yielding the names cirrocumulus, and cirrostratus.[8]

In addition to these individual cloud types; Howard added two names to designate cloud systems consisting of more than one form joined together or located in very close proximity. Cumulostratus described large cumulus clouds blended with stratiform layers in the lower or upper levels.[9] The term nimbus, taken from the Latin word for rain cloud,[8] was given to complex systems of cirriform, cumuliform, and stratiform clouds with sufficient vertical development to produce significant precipitation,[6][10] and it came to be identified as a distinct nimbiform physical category.[11]

In 1840, German meteorologist Ludwig Kaemtz added stratocumulus to Howard’s canon as a mostly detached low-tage genus of limited convection.[12] It was defined as having cumuliform and stratiform characteristics integrated into a single layer (in contrast to cumulostratus which was deemed to be composite in nature and could be structured into more than one layer).[6] This led to the recognition of a stratocumuliform[13] physical category that included rolled and rippled clouds classified separately from the more freely convective heaped cumuliform clouds.

During the mid 1850s, Emilien Renou, director of the Parc Saint-Maur and Montsouris observatories, began work on an elaboration of Howard’s classifications that would lead to the introduction during the 1870s of a newly defined middle tage .[6] Clouds in this altitude range were given the prefix alto- derived from the Latin word altum pertaining to height above the low-level clouds. This resulted in the genus name altocumulus for mid-level cumuliform and stratocumuliform types and altostratus for stratiform types in the same altitude range.[8]

In 1880, Philip Weilbach, secretary and librarian at the Art Academy in Copenhagen, and like Luke Howard, an amateur meteorologist, unsuccessfully proposed an alternative to Howard’s classification. However, he also proposed and had accepted by the permanent committee of the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), a forerunner of the present-day World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the designation of a new free-convective vertical or multi-tage genus type, cumulonimbus (heaped rain cloud), which would be distinct from cumulus and nimbus and identifiable by its often very complex structure (frequently including a cirriform top and what are now recognized as multiple accessory clouds), and its ability to produce thunder. With this addition, a canon of ten tropospheric cloud genera was established that came to be officially and universally accepted.[6] Howard’s cumulostratus was not included as a distinct type, having effectively been reclassified into its component cumuliform and stratiform genus types already included in the new canon.

In 1890, Otto Jesse revealed the discovery and identification of the first clouds known to form above the troposphere. He proposed the name noctilucent which is Latin for night shining. Because of the extremely high altitudes of these clouds in what is now known to be the mesosphere, they could become illuminated by the a sun’s rays when the sky was nearly dark after sunset and before sunrise.[14] Three years later, Henrik Mohn revealed a similar discovery of nacreous clouds in what is now considered the stratosphere.[15]

In 1896, the first cloud atlas sanctioned by the IMO was produced by Teisserenc de Borte based on collaborations with Hugo H. Hildebrandsson. The latter had become the first researcher to use photography for the study and classification of clouds in 1879.[6]

Alternatives to Howard’s classification system were proposed throughout the 19th century. Heinrich Dove of Germany and Elias Loomis of the United States came up with other schemes in 1828 and 1841 respectively, but neither met with international success.[16] Additional proposals were made by Andre Poey (1863), Clemment Ley (1894), and H.H. Clayton (1896), but their systems, like earlier alternative schemes, differed too much from Howard’s to have any success beyond the adoption of some secondary cloud types.[6] However, Clayton’s idea to formalize the division of clouds by their physical structures into cirriform, stratiform, “flocciform” (stratocumuliform)[17] and cumuliform (with the later addition of cumulonimbiform), eventually found favor as an aid in the analysis of satellite cloud images.[13]

A further modification of the genus classification system came when an IMC commission for the study of clouds put forward a refined and more restricted definition of the genus nimbus which was effectively reclassified as a stratiform cloud type. It was then renamed nimbostratus (flattened or spread out rain cloud) and published with the new name in the 1932 edition of the International Atlas of Clouds and of States of the Sky.[6] This left cumulonimbus as the only nimbiform type as indicated by its root-name.

On April 1, 1960, the first successful weather satellite, TIROS-1 (Television Infrared Observation Satellite), was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the participation of The US Army Signal Research and Development Lab, RCA, the US Weather Bureau, and the US Naval Photographic Center. During its 78-day mission, it relayed thousands of pictures showing the structure of large-scale cloud regimes, and proved that satellites could provide useful surveillance of global weather conditions from space.[18]

In 1976, the United Kingdom Department of Industry published a modification of the international cloud classification system adapted for satellite cloud observations. It was co-sponsored by NASA and showed a change in name of the nimbiform type to cumulonimbiform,[13] although the earlier name and original meaning pertaining to all rain clouds can still be found in some classifications.[19]

Clouds can be divided into five physical forms based on physical structure and process of formation. These forms are commonly used for the purpose of satellite analysis.[13] They are given below in approximate ascending order of instability or convective activity.[20]

Non-convective stratiform clouds appear in stable airmass conditions and, in general, have flat sheet-like structures that can form at any altitude in the troposphere.[21] Very low stratiform cloud results when advection fog is lifted above surface level during breezy conditions. The stratiform group is divided by altitude range into the genera cirrostratus (high-tage), altostratus (middle-tage), stratus (low-tage), and nimbostratus (multi-tage).

Cirriform clouds are generally of the genus cirrus and have the appearance of detached or semi-merged filaments. They form at high tropospheric altitudes in air that is mostly stable with little or no convective activity, although denser patches may occasionally show buildups caused by limited high-level convection where the air is partly unstable.[22]

Clouds of this structure have both cumuliform and stratiform characteristics in the form of rolls, ripples, or patches. They generally form as a result of limited convection in an otherwise mostly stable airmass topped by an inversion layer.[12] If the inversion layer is absent or higher in the troposphere, increased convective activity may cause the cloud layers to develop tops in the form of turrets consisting of embedded cumuliform buildups. The stratocumuliform group is divided into layered cirrocumulus (high-tage), layered altocumulus (middle-tage), and stratocumulus (low-tage).

Cumuliform clouds generally appear in isolated heaps or tufts.[23][24] They are the product of localized but generally free-convective lift where there are no inversion layers in the atmosphere to limit vertical growth. In general, small cumuliform clouds tend to indicate comparatively weak instability. Larger cumuliform types are a sign of moderate to strong atmospheric instability and convective activity.[25] Depending on their vertical size, clouds of the cumulus genus-type may be low-level single-tage or multi-tage with moderate to towering vertical extent. Tufted altocumulus and cirrocumulus genera in the middle and high tages are also considered cumuliform because they have a more detached heaped structure than their layered stratocumuliform variants.[26]

The largest free-convective clouds comprise the genus cumulonimbus which are multi-tage because of their towering vertical extent. They occur in highly unstable air[27] and often have complex structures that include cirriform tops and multiple accessory clouds.

Genus types are commonly grouped by tage for the purpose of cloud atlases, surface weather observations[28] and weather maps.[29] These maps are produced from information in the international synoptic code (or SYNOP) that is transmitted at regular intervals by professionally trained staff at major weather stations.

The base-height range for each tage that is cross-classified with the physical forms varies depending on the latitudinal geographical zone.[30] A consensus exists as to the designation of high, middle, and low tages, the makeup of the basic canon of ten cloud genera that results from the cross-classifications, and the tage designations of non-vertical genus types. Clouds with significant vertical extent occupy more than one tage and are commonly, but not always, treated as a separate group or sub-group, or given separate descriptions within the context of the standard tages.[28][31][32]

The standard tages and genus-types are summarised below in approximate descending order of the altitude at which each is normally based.[33] Multi-tage clouds with significant vertical extent are separately listed and summarised in approximate ascending order of instability or convective activity.[20]

Clouds of the high tage form at altitudes of 3,000 to 7,600m (10,000 to 25,000ft) in the polar regions, 5,000 to 12,200m (16,500 to 40,000ft) in the temperate regions and 6,100 to 18,300m (20,000 to 60,000ft) in the tropical region.[30] All cirriform clouds are classified as high and thus constitute a single genus cirrus (Ci). Stratocumuliform and stratiform clouds in the high tage carry the prefix cirro-, yielding the respective genus names cirrocumulus (Cc) and cirrostratus (Cs). When comparatively low-resolution satellite images of high clouds are analized without supporting data from direct human observations, it becomes impossible to distinguish between individual genus types which are then collectively identified as cirrus-type.[34]

Non-vertical clouds in the middle tage are prefixed by alto-, yielding the genus names altocumulus (Ac) and altostratus (As). These clouds can form as low as 2,000m (6,500ft) above surface at any latitude, but may be based as high as 4,000m (13,000ft) near the poles, 7,000m (23,000ft) at mid latitudes, and 7,600m (25,000ft) in the tropics.[30] As with high clouds, it is not always possible to distinguish between individual genera using satellite photography alone. Without the addition of human observations, these clouds are usually collectively identified as ‘middle-type’ on satellite images.[34]

Low-tage clouds are found from near surface up to 2,000m (6,500ft).[30] Genus types in this tage either have no prefix or carry one that refers to a characteristic other than altitude.

These clouds have low to middle-tage bases that form anywhere from near surface to about 2,400m (8,000ft) and tops that can extend into the high tage. The term vertical is often used in connection with this group and is useful for distinguishing between clouds of moderate, deep, and towering vertical extent. However this term is sometimes restricted to upward-growing free-convective cumuliform and cumulonimbiform genera to the exclusion of deep stratiform clouds.[45][46] The terms multi-level or multi-tage are sometimes used instread for very thick or tall cloud types including nimbostratus to avoid the association of ‘vertical’ with free-convective cumuliform only.[32] Alternatively, some classifications do not recognize a vertical or multi-tage designation for any genus types and include all vertical free-convective cumuliform and cumulonimbiform genera with the low-tage clouds.[30]

Nimbostratus and some cumulus in this group usually achieve moderate or deep vertical extent, but without towering structure. However, with sufficient airmass instability, upward-growing cumuliform clouds can grow to high towering proportions. Although genus types with vertical extent are often considered a single group,[31] the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) further distinguishes towering vertical clouds as a separate group or sub-group. It is specified that these very large cumuliform and cumulonimbiform types must be identified by their standard names or abbreviations in all aviation observations (METARS) and forecasts (TAFS) to warn pilots of possible severe weather and turbulence.[47] When towering vertical types are considered separately, they comprise the aforementioned cumulonimbus genus and one cumulus subtype, cumulus congestus (Cu con), which is designated towering cumulus (Tcu) by ICAO. There is no stratiform type in this group because by definition, even very thick stratiform clouds cannot have towering vertical structure, although nimbostratus may be accompanied by embedded towering cumuliform or cumulonimbiform types.[32][48]

These clouds are sometimes classified separately from the other vertical or multi-tage types because of their ability to produce severe turbulence.[47]

Genus types are commonly divided into subtypes called species that indicate specific structural details which can vary according to the stability and windshear characteristics of the atmosphere at any given time and location. Despite this hierarchy, a particular species may be a subtype of more than one genus, especially if the genera are of the same physical form and are differentiated from each other mainly by altitude or tage. Some species can even be subtypes of genera that are each of different physical forms.[57]

The species types are grouped below according to the physical forms and genera with which each is normally associated. The forms, genera, and species are listed in approximate ascending order of instability or convective activity.[20]

Of the stratiform group, high-level cirrostratus comprises two species. Cirrostratus nebulosus has a rather diffuse appearance lacking in structural detail. Cirrostratus fibratus is a species made of semi-merged filaments that are transitional to or from cirrus. Mid-level altostratus and multi-level nimbostratus always have a flat or diffuse appearance and are therefore not subdivided into species. Low-tage stratus is of the species nebulosus except when broken up into ragged sheets of stratus fractus (see below).[31][57][58]

Cirriform clouds have three non-convective species that can form in mostly stable airmass conditions. Cirrus fibratus comprise filaments that may be straight, wavy, or occasionally twisted by non-convective wind shear. The species uncinus is similar but has upturned hooks at the ends. Cirrus spissatus appear as opaque patches that can show light grey shading.[57]

Stratocumuliform genus-types (cirrocumulus, altocumulus, and stratocumulus) that appear in mostly stable air have two species each that can form in the high, middle, or low tages of the troposphere. The stratiformis species normally occur in extensive sheets or in smaller patches where there is only minimal convective activity. Clouds of the lenticularis species tend to have lens-like shapes tapered at the ends. They are most commonly seen as orographic mountain-wave clouds, but can occur anywhere in the troposphere where there is strong wind shear combined with sufficient airmass stability to maintain a generally flat cloud structure.[31][57][58]

The species fractus shows variable instability because it can be a subdivision of genus-types of different physical forms that have different stability characteristics. This subtype can be in the form of ragged but mostly stable stratiform sheets (stratus fractus) or small ragged cumuliform heaps with somewhat greater instability (cumulus fractus).[57][58] When they form at low altitudes, stratiform and cumuliform genus-types can be torn up into shreds by brisk low level winds that create mechanical turbulence against the ground. Fractus clouds can form in precipitation at low altitudes, with or without brisk or gusty winds. They are closely associated with precipitating cloud systems of considerable vertical and sometimes horizontal extent, so they are also classified as accessory clouds under the name pannus (see section on supplementary features).

These species are subdivisions of genus types that occur in partly unstable air. The species castellanus appears when a mostly stable stratocumuliform or cirriform layer becomes disturbed by localized areas of airmass instability. This results in the formation of cumuliform buildups arising from a common stratiform base.[26] Castellanus resembles the turrets of a castle when viewed from the side, and can be found with stratocumuliform genera at any tropospheric altitude level and with limited-convective patches of high-tage cirrus. Clouds of the more detached tufted floccus species are subdivisions of genus-types which may be cirriform or cumuliform in overall structure. They are sometimes seen with cirrus, and with tufted cirrocumulus, and altocumulus. However floccus clouds are not generally found in the low tage,[57][58] an altitude range where their place is taken by clouds of the cumulus genus.

More general airmass instability in the troposphere tends to produce clouds of the more freely convective cumulus genus type, whose species are mainly indicators of degrees of atmospheric instability and resultant vertical development of the clouds. A cumulus cloud initially forms in the low tage as a cloudlet of the species humilis that shows only slight vertical development. If the air becomes more unstable, the cloud tends to grow vertically into the species mediocris, then congestus, the tallest cumulus species.[57]

With highly unstable atmospheric conditions, large cumulus may continue to grow into cumulonimbus calvus (essentially a very tall congestus cloud that produces thunder), then ultimately into the species capillatus when supercooled water droplets at the top of the cloud turn into ice crystals giving it a cirriform appearance.[57][58]

Genus and species types are further subdivided into varieties whose names can appear after the species name to provide a fuller description of a cloud. Some cloud varieties are not restricted to a specific tage or form, and can therefore be common to more than one genus or species.[59]

All cloud varieties fall into one of two main groups. One group identifies the opacities of particular low and middle tage cloud structures and comprises the varieties translucidus (thin translucent), perlucidus (thick opaque with translucent breaks), and opacus (thick opaque). These varieties are always identifiable for cloud genera and species with variable opacity. All three are associated with the stratiformis species of altocumulus and stratocumulus. However, only two varieties are seen with altostratus and stratus nebulosus whose uniform structures prevent the formation of a perlucidus variety. Opacity-based varieties are not applied to high-tage clouds because they are always translucent, or in the case of cirrus spissatus, always opaque.[59][60] Similarly, these varieties are also not associated with moderate and towering vertical clouds because they are always opaque.

A second group describes the occasional arrangements of cloud structures into particular patterns that are discernible by a surface-based observer (cloud fields usually being visible only from a significant altitude above the formations). These varieties are not always present with the genera and species with which they are otherwise associated, but only appear when atmospheric conditions favor their formation. Intortus and vertebratus varieties occur on occasion with cirrus fibratus. They are respectively filaments twisted into irregular shapes, and those that are arranged in fishbone patterns, usually by uneven wind currents that favor the formation of these varieties. The variety radiatus is associated with cloud rows of a particular type that appear to converge at the horizon. It is sometimes seen with the fibratus and uncinus species of cirrus, the stratiformis species of altocumulus and stratocumulus, the mediocris and sometimes humilis species of cumulus,[62][63] and with the genus altostratus.

Another variety, duplicatus (closely spaced layers of the same type, one above the other), is sometimes found with cirrus of both the fibratus and uncinus species, and with altocumulus and stratocumulus of the species stratiformis and lenticularis. The variety undulatus (having a wavy undulating base) can occur with any clouds of the species stratiformis or lenticularis, and with altostratus. It is only rarely observed with stratus nebulosus. The variety lacunosus is caused by localized downdrafts that create circular holes in the form of a honeycomb or net. It is occasionally seen with cirrocumulus and altocumulus of the species stratiformis, castellanus, and floccus, and with stratocumulus of the species stratiformis and castellanus.[59][60]

It is possible for some species to show combined varieties at one time, especially if one variety is opacity-based and the other is pattern-based. An example of this would be a layer of altocumulus stratiformis arranged in seemingly converging rows separated by small breaks. The full technical name of a cloud in this configuration would be altocumulus stratiformis radiatus perlucidus, which would identify respectively its genus, species, and two combined varieties.[58][59][60]

Supplementary features and accessory clouds are not further subdivisions of cloud types below the species and variety level. Rather, they are either hydrometeors or special cloud formations with their own Latin names that form in association with certain cloud genera, species, and varieties.[58][60] Supplementary features, whether in the form of clouds or precipitation, are directly attached to the main genus-cloud. Accessory clouds, by contrast, are generally detached from the main cloud.[64]

One group of supplementary features are not actual cloud formations, but precipitation that falls when water droplets or ice crystals that make up visible clouds have grown too heavy to remain aloft. Virga is a feature seen with clouds producing precipitation that evaporates before reaching the ground, these being of the genera cirrocumulus, altocumulus, altostratus, nimbostratus, stratocumulus, cumulus, and cumulonimbus.[64]

When the precipitation reaches the ground without completely evaporating, it is designated as the feature praecipitatio.[65] This normally occurs with altostratus opacus, which can produce widespread but usually light precipitation, and with thicker clouds that show significant vertical development. Of the latter, upward-growing cumulus mediocris produces only isolated light showers, while downward growing nimbostratus is capable of heavier, more extensive precipitation. Towering vertical clouds have the greatest ability to produce intense precipitation events, but these tend to be localized unless organized along fast-moving cold fronts. Showers of moderate to heavy intensity can fall from cumulus congestus clouds. Cumulonimbus, the largest of all cloud genera, has the capacity to produce very heavy showers. Low stratus clouds usually produce only light precipitation, but this always occurs as the feature praecipitatio due to the fact this cloud genus lies too close to the ground to allow for the formation of virga.[58][60][64]

Incus is the most type-specific supplementary feature, seen only with cumulonimbus of the species capillatus. A cumulonimbus incus cloud top is one that has spread out into a clear anvil shape as a result of rising air currents hitting the stability layer at the tropopause where the air no longer continues to get colder with increasing altitude.[66]

The mamma feature forms on the bases of clouds as downward-facing bubble-like protuberances caused by localized downdrafts within the cloud. It is also sometimes called mammatus, an earlier version of the term used before a standardization of Latin nomenclature brought about by the World Meterorological Organization during the 20th century. The best-known is cumulonimbus with mammatus, but the mamma feature is also seen occasionally with cirrus, cirrocumulus, altocumulus, altostratus, and stratocumulus.[64]

A tuba feature is a cloud column that may hang from the bottom of a cumulus or cumulonimbus. A newly formed or poorly organized column might be comparatively benign, but can quickly intensify into a funnel cloud or tornado.[64][67][68]

An arcus feature is a roll cloud with ragged edges attached to the lower front part of cumulus congestus or cumulonimbus that forms along the leading edge of a squall line or thunderstorm outflow.[69] A large arcus formation can have the appearance of a dark menacing arch.[64]

There are some arcus-like clouds that form as a consequence of interactions with specific geographical features rather than with a parent cloud. Perhaps the strangest geographically specific cloud of this type is the Morning Glory, a rolling cylindrical cloud that appears unpredictably over the Gulf of Carpentaria in Northern Australia. Associated with a powerful “ripple” in the atmosphere, the cloud may be “surfed” in glider aircraft. It has been officially suggested that roll clouds of this type that are not attached to a parent cloud be reclassified as a new species of stratocumulus, possibly with the Latin name volutus.[70]

Supplementary cloud formations detached from the main cloud are known as accessory clouds.[58][60][64] The heavier precipitating clouds, nimbostratus, towering cumulus (cumulus congestus), and cumulonimbus typically see the formation in precipitation of the pannus feature, low ragged clouds of the genera and species cumulus fractus or stratus fractus.

After the pannus types, the remaining accessory clouds comprise formations that are associated mainly with upward-growing cumuliform and cumulonimbiform clouds of free convection. Pileus is a cap cloud that can form over a cumulonimbus or large cumulus cloud,[71] whereas a velum feature is a thin horizontal sheet that sometimes forms like an apron around the middle or in front of the parent cloud.[64]

Under conditions of strong atmospheric wind shear and instability, wave-like undulatus formations may break into regularly spaced crests. This variant has no separate WMO Latin designation, but is sometimes known informally as a KelvinHelmholtz (wave) cloud. This phenomenon has also been observed in cloud formations over other planets and even in the sun’s atmosphere.[72] It has been formally suggested that this wave cloud be classified as a supplementary feature, possibly with the Latin name fluctus. Another wave-like cloud feature that is distinct from the variety undulatus has been given the Latin name asperatus. It has been recommended for formal classification as a supplementary feature using its suggested Latin name.[70]

A circular fall-streak hole occasionally forms in a thin layer of supercooled altocumulus or cirrocumulus. Fall streaks consisting of virga or wisps of cirrus are usually seen beneath the hole as ice crystals fall out to a lower altitude. This type of hole is usually larger than typical lacunosus holes, and a formal recommendation has been made to classify it as a supplementary feature, possibly with the Latin name cavus.[70]

Clouds initially form in clear air or become clouds when fog rises above surface level. The genus of a newly formed cloud is determined mainly by air mass characteristics such as stability and moisture content. If these characteristics change over time, the genus tends to change accordingly. When this happens, the original genus is called a mother cloud. If the mother cloud retains much of its original form after the appearance of the new genus, it is termed a genitus cloud. One example of this is stratocumulus cumulogenitus, a stratocumulus cloud formed by the partial spreading of a cumulus type when there is a loss of convective lift. If the mother cloud undergoes a complete change in genus, it is considered to be a mutatus cloud.[33]

It has been officially recommended that the genitus category be expanded to include certain types that do not originate from pre-existing clouds or as the result of any natural atmospheric processes. Among vertically developed clouds, these may include flammagenitus for cumulus congestus or cumulonimbus that are formed by large scale fires or volcanic eruptions. Smaller low-tage “pyrocumulus” or “fumulus” clouds formed by contained industrial activity could be classified as cumulus homogenitus. Contrails formed from the exhaust of aircraft flying in the high tage can persist and spread into formations resembling any of the high cloud genus-types. These variants have no special WMO designations, but are sometimes given the faux-Latin name Aviaticus. Persistent contrails have been identified as candidates for possible inclusion in the genitus category as cirrus, cirrostratus, or cirrocumulus homogenitus[70]

Stratocumulus clouds can be organized into “fields” that take on certain specially classified shapes and characteristics. In general, these fields are more discernible from high altitudes than from ground level. They can often be found in the following forms:

These patterns are formed from a phenomenon known as a Krmn vortex which is named after the engineer and fluid dynamicist Theodore von Krmn,.[75] When wind driven clouds are forced through a mountain range, or when ocean wind driven clouds encounter a high elevation island, they can begin to circle the mountain or high land mass. They can form at any altitude in the troposphere and are not restricted to any particular cloud type.

Air can become saturated as a result of being cooled to its dew point or by having moisture added from an adjacent source. Adiabatic cooling occurs when one or more of three possible lifting agents – cyclonic/frontal, convective, or orographic causes air containing invisible water vapor to rise and cool to its dew point, the temperature at which the air becomes saturated. The main mechanism behind this process is adiabatic cooling.[76] If the air is cooled to its dew point and becomes saturated, it normally sheds vapor it can no longer retain, which condenses into cloud. Water vapor in saturated air is normally attracted to condensation nuclei such as dust and salt particles that are small enough to be held aloft by normal circulation of the air.[27][77]

Frontal and cyclonic lift occur when stable air is forced aloft at weather fronts and around centers of low pressure.[78]Warm fronts associated with extratropical cyclones tend to generate mostly cirriform and stratiform clouds over a wide area unless the approaching warm airmass is unstable, in which case cumulus congestus or cumulonimbus clouds will usually be embedded in the main precipitating cloud layer.[79]Cold fronts are usually faster moving and generate a narrower line of clouds which are mostly stratocumuliform, cumuliform, or cumulonimbiform depending on the stability of the warm air mass just ahead of the front.[56]

Another agent is the convective upward motion of air caused by daytime solar heating at surface level.[27] Airmass instability allows for the formation of cumuliform clouds that can produce showers if the air is sufficiently moist.[80] On comparatively rare occasions, convective lift can be powerful enough to penetrate the tropopause and push the cloud top into the stratosphere.[81]

A third source of lift is wind circulation forcing air over a physical barrier such as a mountain (orographic lift).[27] If the air is generally stable, nothing more than lenticular cap clouds will form. However, if the air becomes sufficiently moist and unstable, orographic showers or thunderstorms may appear.[82]

Along with adiabatic cooling that requires a lifting agent, there are three major non-adiabatic mechanisms for lowering the temperature of the air to its dew point. Conductive, radiational, and evaporative cooling require no lifting mechanism and can cause condensation at surface level resulting in the formation of fog.[83][84][85]

There are several main sources of water vapor that can be added to the air as a way of achieving saturation without any cooling process: Water or moist ground,[86][87][88] precipitation or virga,[89] and transpiration from plants[90]

Although the local distribution of clouds can be significantly influenced by topography, the global prevalence of cloud cover tends to vary more by latitude. It is most prevalent globally in and along low pressure zones of surface atmospheric convergence which encircle the Earth close to the equator and near the 50th parallels of latitude in the northern and southern hemispheres.[91] The adiabatic cooling processes that lead to the creation of clouds by way of lifting agents are all associated with convergence; a process that involves the horizontal inflow and accumulation of air at a given location, as well as the rate at which this happens.[92] Near the equator, increased cloudiness is due to the presence of the low-pressure Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) where very warm and unstable air promotes mostly cumuliform and cumulonimbiform clouds.[93] Clouds of virtually any type can form along the mid-latitude convergence zones depending on the stability and moisture content of the air. These extratropical convergence zones are occupied by the polar fronts where air masses of polar origin meet and clash with those of tropical or subtropical origin.[94] This leads to the formation of weather-making extratropical cyclones composed of cloud systems that may be stable or unstable to varying degrees according to the stability characteristics of the various airmasses that are in conflict.[95]

Divergence is the opposite of convergence. In the Earth’s atmosphere, it involves the horizontal outflow of air from the upper part of a rising column of air, or from the lower part of a subsiding column often associated with an area or ridge of high pressure.[92] Cloudiness tends to be least prevalent near the poles and in the subtropics close to the 20th parallels, north and south. The latter are sometimes referred to as the horse latitudes. The presence of a large-scale high-pressure subtropical ridge on each side of the equator reduces cloudiness at these low latitudes. Similar patterns also occur at higher latitudes in both hemispheres.

The luminance or brightness of a cloud is determined by how light is reflected, scattered, and transmitted by the cloud’s particles. Its brightness may also be affected by the presence of haze or photometeors such as halos and rainbows.[96] In the troposphere, dense, deep clouds exhibit a high reflectance (70% to 95%) throughout the visible spectrum. Tiny particles of water are densely packed and sunlight cannot penetrate far into the cloud before it is reflected out, giving a cloud its characteristic white color, especially when viewed from the top.[97] Cloud droplets tend to scatter light efficiently, so that the intensity of the solar radiation decreases with depth into the gases. As a result, the cloud base can vary from a very light to very-dark-grey depending on the cloud’s thickness and how much light is being reflected or transmitted back to the observer. High thin tropospheric clouds reflect less light because of the comparatively low concentration of constituent ice crystals or supercooled water droplets which results in a slightly off-white appearance. However, a thick dense ice-crystal cloud appears brilliant white with pronounced grey shading because of its greater reflectivity.[96]

As a tropospheric cloud matures, the dense water droplets may combine to produce larger droplets. If the droplets become too large and heavy to be kept aloft by the air circulation, they will fall from the cloud as rain. By this process of accumulation, the space between droplets becomes increasingly larger, permitting light to penetrate farther into the cloud. If the cloud is sufficiently large and the droplets within are spaced far enough apart, a percentage of the light that enters the cloud is not reflected back out but is absorbed giving the cloud a darker look. A simple example of this is one’s being able to see farther in heavy rain than in heavy fog. This process of reflection/absorption is what causes the range of cloud color from white to black.[98]

Striking cloud colorations can be seen at any altitude, with the color of a cloud usually being the same as the incident light.[99]

During daytime when the sun is relatively high in the sky, tropospheric clouds generally appear bright white on top with varying shades of grey underneath. Thin clouds may look white or appear to have acquired the color of their environment or background. Red, orange, and pink clouds occur almost entirely at sunrise/sunset and are the result of the scattering of sunlight by the atmosphere. When the sun is just below the horizon, low-etage clouds are gray, middle clouds appear rose-colored, and high-etage clouds are white or off-white. Clouds at night are black or dark grey in a moonless sky, or whitish when illuminated by the moon. They may also reflect the colors of large fires, city lights, or auroras that might be present.[99]

A cumulonimbus cloud that appears to have a greenish/bluish tint is a sign that it contains extremely high amounts of water; hail or rain which scatter light in a way that gives the cloud a blue color. A green colorization occurs mostly late in the day when the sun is comparatively low in the sky and the incident sunlight has a reddish tinge that appears green when illuminating a very tall bluish cloud. Supercell type storms are more likely to be characterized by this but any storm can appear this way. Coloration such as this does not directly indicate that it is a severe thunderstorm, it only confirms its potential. Since a green/blue tint signifies copious amounts of water, a strong updraft to support it, high winds from the storm raining out, and wet hail; all elements that improve the chance for it to become severe, can all be inferred from this. In addition, the stronger the updraft is, the more likely the storm is to undergo tornadogenesis and to produce large hail and high winds.[100]

Yellowish clouds may be seen in the troposphere in the late spring through early fall months during forest fire season. The yellow color is due to the presence of pollutants in the smoke. Yellowish clouds caused by the presence of nitrogen dioxide are sometimes seen in urban areas with high air pollution levels.[101]

The role of tropospheric clouds in regulating weather and climate remains a leading source of uncertainty in projections of global warming.[104][105] This uncertainty arises because of the delicate balance of processes related to clouds, spanning scales from millimeters to planetary. Hence, interactions between large-scale weather events (synoptic meteorology) and clouds becomes difficult to represent in global models.

The complexity and diversity of clouds, as outlined above, adds to the problem. On the one hand, white-colored cloud tops promote cooling of Earth’s surface by reflecting short-wave radiation from the sun. Most of the sunlight that reaches the ground is absorbed, warming the surface, which emits radiation upward at longer, infrared, wavelengths. At these wavelengths, however, water in the clouds acts as an efficient absorber. The water reacts by radiating, also in the infrared, both upward and downward, and the downward long-wave radiation results in some warming at the surface. This is analogous to the greenhouse effect of greenhouse gases and water vapor.[106]

High-tage genus-types particularly show this duality with both short-wave albedo cooling and long-wave greenhouse warming effects. On the whole though, ice-crystal clouds in the upper troposphere tend to favor net warming.[107][108] However, the cooling effect is dominant with mid-level and low clouds made of very small water droplets with an average radius of about 0.002mm (0.00008in).,[77] especially when they form in extensive sheets that block out more of the sun. Small-droplet aerosols are not good at absorbing long-wave radiation reflected back from Earth, so there is a net cooling with almost no long-wave effect. This effect is particularly pronounced with low clouds that form over water.[107] Measurements taken by NASA indicate that on the whole, the effects of low and middle tage clouds that tend to promote cooling are outweighing the warming effects of high layers and the variable outcomes associated with or vertically developed clouds.[107]

Low and vertical heaps of cumulus, towering cumulus, and cumulonimbus are made of larger water droplets ranging in radius from 0.005 to about 0.015mm. Nimbostratus cloud droplets can also be quite large, up to 0.015mm radius.[109] These larger droplets associated with vertically developed clouds are better able to trap the long-wave radiation thus mitigating the cooling effect to some degree. However, these large often precipitating clouds are variable or unpredictable in their overall effect because of variations in their concentration, distribution, and vertical extent.

As difficult as it is to evaluate the effects of current cloud cover characteristics on climate change, it is even more problematic to predict the outcome of this change with respect to future cloud patterns and events. As a consequence, much research has focused on the response of low and vertical clouds to a changing climate. Leading global models can produce quite different results, however, with some showing increasing low-tage clouds and others showing decreases.[110][111]

Polar stratospheric clouds show little variation in structure and are limited to a single very high range of altitude of about 15,00025,000m (49,20082,000ft), so they are not classified into tages, genus types, species, or varieties in the manner of tropospheric clouds. Instead, the classification is alpha-numeric and is based on chemical makeup rather than variations in physical appearance.[112]

Polar stratospheric clouds form in the lowest part of the stratosphere during the winter, at the altitude and during the season that produces the coldest temperatures and therefore the best chances of triggering condensation caused by adiabatic cooling. They are typically very thin with an undulating cirriform appearance.[113] Moisture is scarce in the stratosphere, so nacreous and non-nacreous cloud at this altitude range is rare and is usually restricted to polar regions in the winter where the air is coldest.

Polar mesospheric clouds form at a single extreme altitude range of about 80 to 85km (50 to 53mi) and are consequently not classified into more than one tage. They are given the Latin name noctilucent because of their illumination well after sunset and before sunrise. They typically have a bluish or silvery white coloration that can resemble brightly illuminated cirrus. Noctilucent clouds may occasionally take on more of a red or orange hue.[14] They are not common or widespread enough to have a significant effect on climate.[114] However, an increasing frequency of occurrence of noctilucent clouds since the 19th century may be the result of climate change.An alpha-numeric classification is used to identify variations in physical appearance.[14]

Polar mesospheric clouds are the highest in the atmosphere and form near the top of the mesosphere at about ten times the altitude of tropospheric high clouds.[115] From ground level, they can occasionally be seen illuminated by the sun during deep twilight. Ongoing research indicates that convective lift in the mesosphere is strong enough during the polar summer to cause adiabatic cooling of small amount of water vapour to the point of saturation. This tends to produce the coldest temperatures in the entire atmosphere just below the mesopause. These conditions result in the best environment for the formation of polar mesospheric clouds.[114] There is also evidence that smoke particles from burnt-up meteors provide much of the condensation nuclei required for the formation of noctilucent cloud.[116]

Distribution in the mesosphere is similar to the stratosphere except at much higher altitudes. Because of the need for maximum cooling of the water vapor to produce noctilucent clouds, their distribution tends to be restricted to polar regions of Earth. A major seasonal difference is that convective lift from below the mesosphere pushes very scarce water vapor to higher colder altitudes required for cloud formation during the respective summer seasons in the northern and southern hemispheres. Sightings are rare more than 45 degrees south of the north pole or north of the south pole.[14]

Cloud cover has been seen on most other planets in the solar system. Venus’s thick clouds are composed of sulfur dioxide and appear to be almost entirely stratiform.[117] They are arranged in three main layers at altitudes of 45 to 65km that obscure the planet’s surface and can produce virga.[118] No embedded cumuliform types have been identified, but broken stratocumuliform wave formations are sometimes seen in the top layer that reveal more continuous layer clouds underneath.[119] On Mars, noctilucent, cirrus, cirrocumulus and stratocumulus composed of water-ice have been detected mostly near the poles.[120][121] Water-ice fogs have also been detected on this planet.[122]

Both Jupiter and Saturn have an outer cirriform cloud deck composed of ammonia,[123][124] an intermediate stratiform haze-cloud layer made of ammonium hydrosulfide, and an inner deck of cumulus water clouds.[125][126] Embedded cumulonimbus are known to exist near the Great Red Spot on Jupiter.[127][128] The same category-types can be found covering Uranus, and Neptune, but are all composed of methane.[129][130][131][132][133][134] Saturn’s moon Titan has cirrus clouds believed to be composed largely of methane.[135][136] The CassiniHuygens Saturn mission uncovered evidence of polar stratospheric clouds[137] and a fluid cycle on Titan, including lakes near the poles and fluvial channels on the surface of the moon.

Some planets outside the solar system are known to have atmospheric clouds. In October 2013, the detection of high altitude optically thick clouds in the atmosphere of exoplanet Kepler-7b was announced,[138][139] and, in December 2013, also in the atmospheres of GJ 436 b and GJ 1214 b.[140][141][142][143]

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Cloud – Wikipedia

Cloud – Wikimedia Commons




Catal: Nvol

etina: Oblak

Dansk: Sky

Deutsch: Wolke

Eesti: Pilv

English: cloud

Espaol: Nube

Esperanto: Nubo

Euskara: Hodei

Franais: Nuage

Galego: Nube


Hrvatski: Oblak

Italiano: Nuvola

Ltzebuergesch: Wollek

Lietuvi: Debesys

Magyar: Felh


Nederlands: Wolk


Norsk bokml: Sky

Norsk nynorsk: Sky

Polski: Chmura

Portugus: Nuvem

Slovenina: Oblak

Suomi: pilvi

Svenska: Moln



See also: Fog, Mist

See Category:Unidentified clouds

Wolken in Sebnitz – Sachsen – Germany – Panoramaaufnahme

Clouds from A320 Window over midwestern U.S.

Clouds, as viewed from a plane, flying from Pittsburgh to New York La Guardia.

clouds (sight from airplane)

Sight from airplane (Milano-Girona)

Stratocumulus over the Channel Sea

Cumulus over the China Sea

Marine clouds over Los Angeles

Over Florida heading west.

Thunderstorms over Brazil, seen from space shuttle Challenger in 1984

See also: Category:Satellite photos

London, Clouds over Trafalgar square

Cornwall St-Michaels Mount

Colourful cloud formation

Dark clouds coming to Haldensee, Tirol, Austria.

Clouds over Radolne Lake in Kashubia, Poland

Clouds over Radolne Lake in Kashubia, Poland

90 mile beach, Lakes Entrance

Stacked formation of lenticular clouds

Standing wave clouds formed in the lee of Mt. Imitos

Above the stratocumulus looking at multi-layers of clouds

Approaching rain line with a thunderstorm

Cloud wall associated with fast moving cold front

Cloud in Marokko from airplane

Clouds arrange itself coincidentally to extend the trail

Airplane flying into clouds

Twilight, just moments before Sunrise

See also category: Cloud cover.

See also: Clouds in art, Category:Clouds in art

Fjodor Alexandrowitsch Wassiljew: Cloud, 1860

Cloud – Wikimedia Commons

A-500 PRO Cloud Media

Weight 3 kg Chipset

Sigma Designs SMP8758

1.2GHz ARM Cortex A9 Dual Core

Mali-400 MP4


HDMI 1.4, Component

ESS SABRE32 Audio DAC, ES9018K2M

XLR: Frequency Range: 20Hz 20kHz THD+N Ratio: -114dB (1kHz at 0dBFS, 20kHz LPF) Signal-to-Noise Ratio: 122dB (A-weighted)

RCA: Frequency Range: 20Hz 20kHz THD+N Ratio: -108dB (1kHz at 0dBFS, 20kHz LPF) Signal-to-Noise Ratio: 117dB (A-weighted)

Headphone: Frequency Range: 20Hz 20kHz THD+N Ratio: -89dB (1kHz at 0dBFS, 20kHz LPF) Signal-to-Noise Ratio: 99dB (A-weighted)

Optical & Coaxial S/PDIF (up to 192kHz Sampling Rate)

Two USB 2.0 Host, USB 3.0 Slave, SD Card Reader, Gigabit Ethernet, IR Extender Port, Internal SATA, IR Remote Control, Dual-Boot Switch, 12V 5A Power Adapter

BL-WDN600 (MT7610U 802.11ac), WN-150 (Realtek RTL8192), WN-160 (Ralink RT3070)

Apps Market, Music Home User Interface, Media Home User Interface, Networked Media Jukebox


Main Profile @L4.1, Main 10 Profile @L4.1


* up to DSD512

DTS, DTS-HD HR, DTS-HD MA, DTS:X, Dolby Digital, Dolby Digital Plus, Dolby TrueHD, Dolby ATMOS, AAC, WMA Pro





SRT, MicroDVD SUB, SSA/ASS, SUB/IDX, PGS, SMI, OpenSubtitles

BT Downloader, Usenet Downloader, NAS function

Linux, Android

NMJ Navigator & Mobile NMJ apps on Android and iOS

See more here:
A-500 PRO Cloud Media

Media Cloud Server – ADLINK Technology

For Video Processing Applications

Media applications are mobile. People want the flexibility to access applications from any device, anywhere, anytime, without compromising quality due to latency or visualization. In order to provide media application flexibility and deal with the explosive growth of video data, digital security surveillance and video streaming service providers are moving their video service applications to the cloud. Video conferencing service providers are following suit, because moving the conferencing server to the cloud makes it possible to share conferencing resources more efficiently. In addition, the introduction of cloud-friendly Web Real-Time Communication (WebRTC) brings the benefit of a pure browser-based, plug-in free client.

To stay ahead of cloud migration in the media market, video service providers must find a way to move their services to the cloud. On the other hand, they must also make efforts to add new eye-catching video services to their cloud-based media products. Therefore, we’ve seen many fashionable media terms popping out in recent years, such as 4K video, video-based social networking, web-based video conferencing, and cloud-based video analytics. These new video services require a cloud-friendly hardware architecture and faster video processing speed, which present more media processing challenges to the video service providers.

ADLINK Media Cloud Server with MediaManager software provide a high-performance Application Ready Intelligent Platform (ARiP) for video services, allowing the customer to conquer media processing challenges in the cloud era.

Learn more about ADLINK MediaManager

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Media Cloud Server – ADLINK Technology

U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 …

U.S. Federal cloud computing market will surpass $10 billion by 2020, growing at CAGR 16.2% in the period 2015-2020

The U.S. government has laid out broad plans for the implementation of cloud computing in the federal government infrastructure, a step reflecting a fundamental re-examination of investments in technology infrastructure, fueling double-digit growth in this very dynamic market segment of federal IT.

Among report findings:

The report provides detailed year-by-year (2015 2020) forecasts for the following U.S. Federal Government market segments:

U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015 2020, Tabular Analysis, January 2016, Pages: 28, Figures: 23, Tables: 7, Single User Price: $5,950.00 Reports are delivered in PDF format within 24 hours. Analysis provides quantitative market research information in a concise tabular format. The tables/charts present a focused snapshot of the market dynamics. Inc. (Ohio, USA) is an authorized retailer for goods and services provided by Market Research Media Ltd.

U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015 2020, Tabular Analysis, January 2016, Pages: 28, Figures: 23, Tables: 7, Global Site License: $9,950.00 Reports are delivered in PDF format within 24 hours. Analysis provides quantitative market research information in a concise tabular format. The tables/charts present a focused snapshot of the market dynamics. Inc. (Ohio, USA) is an authorized retailer for goods and services provided by Market Research Media Ltd.

Table of Contents 1. Market Report Scope & Methodology 1.1. Scope 1.2. Research Methodology

2. Executive Summary 2.1. Key Report Findings 3. U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market in Figures 2015-2020 3.1. Department of Defense: Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 3.2. Civilian Agencies: Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 3.3. U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 by Defense and Civilian Agencies 3.4. U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 by SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS 3.5. U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020: Cloud Transition and Management Services 3.6. U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020 by Investment Type 3.7. U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020: Mobile Cloud Services

List of Figures Fig. 1- Historical U.S. Federal IT Spending Pattern 2001-2010, $Bln Fig. 2- The Number of the U.S. Government Data Centers in 1998 2010 and Target for 2015 Fig. 3- Typical Data Center Annual Costs, $Mln Fig. 4- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020, $Mln Fig. 5- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market as Percent of Federal IT Budget, % Fig. 6- DoD: Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 by Agency, $Mln Fig. 7- Cumulative DoD Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020 by Agency, % Fig. 8- Top Ten Civilian Agencies by Cloud Computing Market Size 2015-2020, $Mln Fig. 9- Cumulative U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market by Defense and Civilian Agencies 2015-2020, % Fig. 10- U.S. Federal IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) Market Forecast 2015-2020, $Mln Fig. 11- U.S. Federal PaaS (Platform as a Service) Market Forecast 2015-2020, $Mln Fig. 12- U.S. Federal SaaS (Software as a Service) Market Forecast 2015-2020, $Mln Fig. 13- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020: Cloud Transition and Management Services, $Mln Fig. 14- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020: Cloud Transition and Management Services by Segments, $Mln Fig. 15- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020: Cloud Transition and Management Services by Segments, CAGR % Fig. 16- Market Segment Dynamics 2015-2020: Cloud Transition and Management Fig. 17- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020: Cloud Planning and Transition to the Cloud, $Mln Fig. 18- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020: Interoperability & Middleware, $Mln Fig. 19- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020: Personnel Training, $Mln Fig. 20- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020: Compliance and Security Services, $Mln Fig. 21- U.S. Federal Cumulative Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020 by Investment Type, % Fig. 22- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020 by Investment Type, $Mln Fig. 23- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020: Mobile Cloud Services, $Mln

List of Tables Table 1 U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020, $Mln Table 2 DoD: Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 by Agency, $Mln Table 3 Civilian Agencies: Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 by Agency, $Mln Table 4 U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market by Defense and Civilian Agencies 2015-2020, $Mln Table 5 U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 by SaaS, PaaS and IaaS, $Mln Table 6 U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020: Cloud Transition and Management Services Table 7 U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020: Mobile Cloud Services, $Mln

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U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 …

Amazon CloudFront Content Delivery Network (CDN)

Amazon CloudFront can be used to deliver your entire website, including dynamic, static, streaming, and interactive content using a global network of edge locations. Requests for your content are automatically routed to the nearest edge location, so content is delivered with the best possible performance. Amazon CloudFront is optimized to work with other Amazon Web Services, like Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3), Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2), Amazon Elastic Load Balancing, and Amazon Route 53. Amazon CloudFront also works seamlessly with any non-AWS origin server, which stores the original, definitive versions of your files. Like other Amazon Web Services products, there are no long-term contracts or minimum monthly usage commitments for using Amazon CloudFront you pay only for as much or as little content as you actually deliver through the content delivery service.

Using a network of edge locations around the world, Amazon CloudFront caches copies of your static content close to viewers, lowering latency when they download your objects and giving you the high, sustained data transfer rates needed to deliver large popular objects to end users at scale. Requests for your dynamic content are carried back to your origin servers running in Amazon Web Services (e.g., Amazon EC2, Elastic Load Balancing) over optimized network paths for a more reliable and consistent experience. These network paths are constantly monitored by Amazon and connections from CloudFront edge locations to the origin are reused to serve your dynamic content from our content delivery network (CDN) with the best possible performance.

A single API call lets you get started distributing content from your Amazon S3 bucket or Amazon EC2 instance or other origin server through the Amazon CloudFront network. Or, interact with Amazon CloudFront through the AWS Management Consoles simple graphical user interface. There is no need to create separate domains for your static and dynamic content. With CloudFront, you can just use the same domain name to point to all of your website content. Any changes you make to your existing configuration take effect across the entire global network within minutes. Plus, since theres no need to negotiate with a sales person, you can get started quickly and begin delivering your entire website using Amazon CloudFront.

Amazon CloudFront is designed for use with other Amazon Web Services, including Amazon S3, where you can durably store the definitive versions of your static files, and Amazon EC2, where you can run your application server for dynamically generated content. If you are using Amazon S3 or Amazon EC2 as an origin server, data transferred from the origin server to edge locations (Amazon CloudFront origin fetches) will be billed at a lower price than Internet data transfer out of Amazon S3 or Amazon EC2. Amazon CloudFront also integrates with Elastic Load Balancing. For instance, you can deploy your web application on Amazon EC2 servers behind Elastic Load Balancing and use Amazon CloudFront to deliver your entire website. Learn more about pricing for all AWS services.

Amazon CloudFront passes on the benefits of Amazons scale to you. You pay only for the content that you deliver through the network, without minimum commitments or up-front fees. This applies for any type of content that you deliver static, dynamic, streaming media, or a web application with any combination of these.

With Amazon CloudFront, you dont need to worry about maintaining expensive web-server capacity to meet the demand from potential traffic spikes for your content. The service automatically responds as demand increases or decreases without any intervention from you. Amazon CloudFront also uses multiple layers of caching at each edge location and collapses simultaneous requests for the same object before contacting your origin server. These optimizations further help reduce the need to scale your origin infrastructure as your website becomes more popular.

Amazon CloudFront is built using Amazons highly reliable infrastructure. The distributed nature of edge locations used by Amazon CloudFront automatically routes end users to the closest available location as required by network conditions. Origin requests from the edge locations to AWS origin servers (e.g., Amazon EC2, Amazon S3, etc.) are carried over network paths that Amazon constantly monitors and optimizes for both availability and performance.

Amazon CloudFront uses a global network of edge locations, located near your end users in the United States, Europe, Asia, and South America and Australia.

There are many great use cases for Amazon CloudFront, including:

A typical website generally contains a mix of static content and dynamic content. Static content includes images or style sheets; dynamic or application generated content includes elements of your site that are personalized to each viewer. A website may also have forms that a user submits to log in, search or post a comment.

You can use a single CloudFront distribution as a content distribution network to deliver your entire website, including both static and dynamic or interactive content to the end users to content uploaded by the end user to the origin. This means that you can continue to use a single domain name (e.g., for your entire website without the need to separate your static and dynamic content. Meanwhile, you can still continue to use separate origin servers for different types of content on your website. Amazon CloudFront provides you with granular control for configuring multiple origin servers and caching properties for different URLs on your website. These performance optimizations and functionality can help speed up the download of your entire website which can help lower site abandonment.

Amazon CloudFront can help improve performance of your entire website in the following ways:

Amazon CloudFront is a good choice for software developers who wish to distribute applications, updates or other downloadable software to end users. Amazon CloudFronts high data transfer rates speed up downloading your applications, improving the customer experience and lowering your costs. Amazon CloudFront also offers lower prices than Amazon S3 at higher usage tiers.

If your application involves rich media audio or video that is frequently accessed, you will benefit from Amazon CloudFronts lower data transfer prices and improved data transfer speeds. Amazon CloudFront offers multiple options for delivering your media files both pre-recorded media and live media.

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Amazon CloudFront Content Delivery Network (CDN)

Media Services – Audio & video streaming | Microsoft Azure

What is Media Services?

Azure Media Services powers consumer and enterprise streaming solutions worldwide. Combining powerful and highly scalable cloud-based encoding, encryption, and steaming components, Media Services helps customers with valuable and premium video content easily reach larger audiences on todays most popular digital devices, such as tablets and mobile phones. Live broadcastersof sporting events, news, concerts, town meetings, and moreand linear channel operators offering popular over-the-top programming and services are turning to Azure as their platform of choice.

Additionally, with exciting new features such as Azure Media Indexer to enhance discoverability, cross-platform players to simplify distribution, cloud DVR capabilities to move easily from live content to on-demand programming, and a large ecosystem of value-added third-party partners, Media Services is truly providing customers with video content as a best-in-class solution. Come have a look yourself, and see how Media Services can power your end-to-end media workflow.

Quickly deliver scalable subscription video on demand (VOD), transactional VOD, advertising VOD, and over-the-top services. Use our CDSA- and ISO-certified cloud to reduce costs and deliver content to multiple platforms from Azure data centers worldwide.

Support common encryption and multiple DRM technology such as Microsoft PlayReady and Google Widevine, or Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) to protect your content.

Seamlessly integrate with the Media Services streaming platform to lower costs by encoding once and delivering in multiple formats with dynamic packaging.

Azure Media Encoder and Media Encoder Premium offer studio-grade encoding at cloud scale.

Media Services is a highly flexible platform capable of handling everything from small scale local events to the largest events on the planet like the FIFA World Cup and the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics.

Use cases include event based streaming and 24×7 linear streaming with cloud DVR workflows.

Media Services is a great platform for enabling businesses large and small to reach their employees and customers. The platform capabilities, combined with partner solutions, make it easy to do more with video in your organization. Its been used by several enterprises for purposes such as training, corporate communication, and council meetings. Media Services provides scalable, always-available, secure delivery of video to both employees and external customers via the Azure website.

Azure Content Delivery Network lets you deliver high-bandwidth content to users around the world with low latency and high availability via a robust network of global data centers. It sends audio, video, applications, images, and other files to users from the nearest servers. This dramatically increases speed and availability, resulting in significant user experience improvements. Learn more

Studio Grade encoding at Cloud Scale

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A single player for all your playback needs

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Enhance discoverability and accessibility of media

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Securely deliver content using AES or multi-DRM

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Media Services – Audio & video streaming | Microsoft Azure

Media Cloud – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Media Cloud is an open-source content analysis tool that aims to map news media coverage of current events. It “performs five basic functions — media definition, crawling, text extraction, word vectoring, and analysis.”[1] Media cloud “tracks hundreds of newspapers and thousands of Web sites and blogs, and archives the information in a searchable form. The database … enable[s] researchers to search for key people, places and events from Michael Jackson to the Iranian elections and find out precisely when, where and how frequently they are covered.”[2] Media Cloud was developed by the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University and launched in March 2009.[3][4] It’s distributed under the GNU GPL 3+.[5]

As of October 2011, Media Cloud tracks news from mostly U.S. sources. It “collects news stories” in sets from:[6]

On May 6, 2011 the Berkman Center relaunched Media Cloud, a platform designed to let scholars, journalists and anyone interested in the world of media ask and answer quantitative questions about media attention. For more than a year, weve been collecting roughly 50,000 English-language stories a day from 17,000 media sources, including major mainstream media outlets, left and right-leaning American political blogs, as well as from 1000 popular general interest blogs.[7] The data was used to analyze the differences in coverage of international crises in professional and citizen media and to study the rapid shifts in media attention that have accompanied the flood of breaking news thats characterized early 2011.[7] International research has lead way to publishing of new research that uses Media Cloud to help us understand the structure of professional and citizen media in Russia and in Egypt.[7] The relaunch of Media Cloud allows users who are interested in using its tools to analyze what bloggers and journalists are paying attention to, ignoring, celebrating or condemning.”[7]

First, Media Cloud chooses a set of media sources and uncovers the feeds for each.[1] Each feed is then crawled in order to determine if any stories have been added to any feed.[1] All content is then extracted of each relevant story. Any advertisements or other navigation pages are left behind.[1] The text of each story is broken down into word counts, which shows the different word choices that each media source uses in discussing any relevant topic.[1]The word counts are then analyzed and published to show data trends.[1]

Media Cloud was used from September 2010 through January 2012 to obtain data for a study at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society that analyzed a set of 9,757 online stories related to the COICA-SOPA-PIPA debate. The open source application was utilized for the text and link analysis portion of the research.[8] Findings from this research were published in July 2013[2].

The Berkman Center for Internet & Society website offers an interactive visualization map[3] from this study, which was created to depict media sources (nodes, which appear as circles on the map with different colors denoting different media types) [and] track media sources and their linkages within discrete time slices and allows users to zoom into the controversy to see which entities are present in the debate during a given period[8] This map allows for the visualization of how the COICA-SOPA-PIPA controversy evolved over time by using link analysis.

Many companies are taking advantage of the ability to analyze and organize this new data that media cloud can create. Companies such as RAMP offer a “cloud-based” way to analyze and create every type of metadata.[9]

Media cloud’s key functionality comes from using web crawling to periodically fetch articles from various sources and then break them down into words that are counted. These word counts are then analyzed to determine what sources are saying about certain news.[1] This process is not unique to Media Cloud and in fact is an application of the recently popular stream algorithms. These are algorithms characterized by operating on a continuous and unending stream of data, rather than waiting for a complete batch of information to be assembled. These algorithms are very useful because they allow monitoring of trends without having to know which topics are going to be the most popular. This type of functionality first noticeably emerged with network managers trying to dynamically see which sites have the highest traffic volumes. From there, stream algorithms have been used to have programs dynamically act on financial information, and by researchers whose experiments generate more data than can be analyzed, so stream algorithms are used to dynamically filter the initial data.[10] Media cloud has similarly taken advantage of the functionality of stream algorithms to dynamically associate words to news as it crawls through various sources, and then provide its signature service of generating sentences based on words that the users are interested in and related media reports.

The day that Media Cloud relaunched, Ethan Zuckerman said, “We hope the tools we’re providing are a complement to amazing efforts like Project for Excellence in Journalism’s News Coverage and New Media indices–we consider their tools the gold standard for understanding what topics are discussed in American media. PEJ works their magic using talented teams of coders, who sample different corners of the media ecosystem to find out what’s being discussed. We use huge data sets, algorithms, and automation to give a different picture, one focused on language instead of topic.”[7]

Future uses for Media Cloud can involve smart phone or tablet applications to introduce the platform to users away from a computer. A Media Cloud app could serve as a news source while on the go for users. If Media Cloud were to expand into different information sites, it could target social media sites and incorporate news into them. Twitter and Facebook have incorporated features for trending news and topics similar to what Media Cloud aims to do.

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Media Cloud – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nebula – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A nebula (Latin for “cloud”;[2] pl. nebulae, nebul, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases. Originally, nebula was a name for any diffuse astronomical object, including galaxies beyond the Milky Way. The Andromeda Galaxy, for instance, was referred to as the Andromeda Nebula (and spiral galaxies in general as “spiral nebulae”) before the true nature of galaxies was confirmed in the early 20th century by Vesto Slipher, Edwin Hubble and others.

Most nebulae are of vast size, even hundreds of light years in diameter.[3] Although denser than the space surrounding them, most nebulae are far less dense than any vacuum created in an Earthen environment – a nebular cloud the size of the Earth would have a total mass of only a few kilograms. Nebulae are often star-forming regions, such as in the “Pillars of Creation” in the Eagle Nebula. In these regions the formations of gas, dust, and other materials “clump” together to form larger masses, which attract further matter, and eventually will become massive enough to form stars. The remaining materials are then believed to form planets and other planetary system objects.

Around 150 AD, Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy) recorded, in books VII-VIII of his Almagest, five stars that appeared nebulous. He also noted a region of nebulosity between the constellations Ursa Major and Leo that was not associated with any star.[4] The first true nebula, as distinct from a star cluster, was mentioned by the Persian/Muslim astronomer, Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, in his Book of Fixed Stars (964).[5] He noted “a little cloud” where the Andromeda Galaxy is located.[6] He also cataloged the Omicron Velorum star cluster as a “nebulous star” and other nebulous objects, such as Brocchi’s Cluster.[5] The supernova that created the Crab Nebula, the SN 1054, was observed by Arabic and Chinese astronomers in 1054.[7][8]

In 1610, Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc discovered the Orion Nebula using a telescope. This nebula was also observed by Johann Baptist Cysat in 1618. However, the first detailed study of the Orion Nebula wouldn’t be performed until 1659 by Christiaan Huygens, who also believed himself to be the first person to discover this nebulosity.[6]

In 1715, Edmund Halley published a list of six nebulae.[9] This number steadily increased during the century, with Jean-Philippe de Cheseaux compiling a list of 20 (including eight not previously known) in 1746. From 175153, Nicolas Louis de Lacaille cataloged 42 nebulae from the Cape of Good Hope, with most of them being previously unknown. Charles Messier then compiled a catalog of 103 “nebulae” (now called Messier objects, which included what are now known to be galaxies) by 1781; his interest was detecting comets, and these were objects that might be mistaken for them.[10]

The number of nebulae was then greatly expanded by the efforts of William Herschel and his sister Caroline Herschel. Their Catalogue of One Thousand New Nebulae and Clusters of Stars was published in 1786. A second catalog of a thousand was published in 1789 and the third and final catalog of 510 appeared in 1802. During much of their work, William Herschel believed that these nebulae were merely unresolved clusters of stars. In 1790, however, he discovered a star surrounded by nebulosity and concluded that this was a true nebulosity, rather than a more distant cluster.[10]

Beginning in 1864, William Huggins examined the spectra of about 70 nebulae. He found that roughly a third of them had the emission spectrum of a gas. The rest showed a continuous spectrum and thus were thought to consist of a mass of stars.[11][12] A third category was added in 1912 when Vesto Slipher showed that the spectrum of the nebula that surrounded the star Merope matched the spectra of the Pleiades open cluster. Thus the nebula radiates by reflected star light.[13]

In about 1922, following the Great Debate, it had become clear that many “nebulae” were in fact galaxies far from our own.

Slipher and Edwin Hubble continued to collect the spectra from many diffuse nebulae, finding 29 that showed emission spectra and 33 had the continuous spectra of star light.[12] In 1922, Hubble announced that nearly all nebulae are associated with stars, and their illumination comes from star light. He also discovered that the emission spectrum nebulae are nearly always associated with stars having spectral classifications of B1 or hotter (including all O-type main sequence stars), while nebulae with continuous spectra appear with cooler stars.[14] Both Hubble and Henry Norris Russell concluded that the nebulae surrounding the hotter stars are transformed in some manner.[12]

Many nebulae or stars form from the gravitational collapse of gas in the interstellar medium or ISM. As the material collapses under its own weight, massive stars may form in the center, and their ultraviolet radiation ionizes the surrounding gas, making it visible at optical wavelengths. Examples of these types of nebulae are the Rosette Nebula and the Pelican Nebula. The size of these nebulae, known as HII regions, varies depending on the size of the original cloud of gas. New stars are formed in the nebulae. The formed stars are sometimes known as a young, loose cluster.

Some nebulae are formed as the result of supernova explosions, the death throes of massive, short-lived stars. The materials thrown off from the supernova explosion are ionized by the energy and the compact object that it can produce. One of the best examples of this is the Crab Nebula, in Taurus. The supernova event was recorded in the year 1054 and is labelled SN 1054. The compact object that was created after the explosion lies in the center of the Crab Nebula and is a neutron star.

Other nebulae may form as planetary nebulae. This is the final stage of a low-mass star’s life, like Earth’s Sun. Stars with a mass up to 810 solar masses evolve into red giants and slowly lose their outer layers during pulsations in their atmospheres. When a star has lost enough material, its temperature increases and the ultraviolet radiation it emits can ionize the surrounding nebula that it has thrown off.

Objects named nebulae belong to four major groups. Before their nature was understood, galaxies (“spiral nebulae”) and star clusters too distant to be resolved as stars were also classified as nebulae, but no longer are.

Not all cloud-like structures are named nebulae; HerbigHaro objects are an example.

Most nebulae can be described as diffuse nebulae, which means that they are extended and contain no well-defined boundaries.[17] In visible light these nebulae may be divided into emission and reflection nebulae. Emission nebulae emit spectral line radiation from ionized gas (mostly ionized hydrogen);[18] they are often called HII regions (the term “HII” is used in professional astronomy to refer to ionized hydrogen).

Reflection nebulae themselves do not emit significant amounts of visible light, but are near stars and reflect light from them.[18] Similar nebulae not illuminated by stars do not exhibit visible radiation, but may be detected as opaque clouds blocking light from luminous objects behind them; they are called “dark nebulae”.[18]

Although these nebulae have different visibility at optical wavelengths, they are all bright sources of infrared emission, chiefly from dust within the nebulae.[18]

Planetary nebulae form from the gaseous shells that are ejected from low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars when they transform into white dwarfs.[18] They are emission nebulae with spectra similar to those of emission nebulae found in star formation regions.[18] Technically they are HII regions, because most hydrogen will be ionized, but they are denser and more compact than the nebulae in star formation regions.[18] Planetary nebulae were given their name by the first astronomical observers who became able to distinguish them from planets, who tended to confuse them with planets, of more interest to them. Our Sun is expected to spawn a planetary nebula about 12 billion years after its formation.[19]

A protoplanetary nebula (PPN) is an astronomical object which is at the short-lived episode during a star’s rapid stellar evolution between the late asymptotic giant branch (LAGB) phase and the following planetary nebula (PN) phase.[20] During the AGB phase, the star undergoes mass loss, emitting a circumstellar shell of hydrogen gas. When this phase comes to an end, the star enters the PPN phase.

The PPN is energized by the central star, causing it to emit strong infrared radiation and become a reflection nebula. Collaminated stellar winds from the central star shape and shock the shell into an axially symmetric form, while producing a fast moving molecular wind.[21] The exact point when a PPN becomes a planetary nebula (PN) is defined by the temperature of the central star. The PPN phase continues until the central star reaches a temperature of 30,000 K, after which is it hot enough to ionize the surrounding gas.[22]

A supernova occurs when a high-mass star reaches the end of its life. When nuclear fusion in the core of the star stops, the star collapses. The gas falling inward either rebounds or gets so strongly heated that it expands outwards from the core, thus causing the star to explode.[18] The expanding shell of gas forms a supernova remnant, a special diffuse nebula.[18] Although much of the optical and X-ray emission from supernova remnants originates from ionized gas, a great amount of the radio emission is a form of non-thermal emission called synchrotron emission.[18] This emission originates from high-velocity electrons oscillating within magnetic fields.

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Nebula – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia