Cloud – Wikimedia Commons




Catal: Nvol

etina: Oblak

Dansk: Sky

Deutsch: Wolke

Eesti: Pilv

English: cloud

Espaol: Nube

Esperanto: Nubo

Euskara: Hodei

Franais: Nuage

Galego: Nube


Hrvatski: Oblak

Italiano: Nuvola

Ltzebuergesch: Wollek

Lietuvi: Debesys

Magyar: Felh


Nederlands: Wolk


Norsk bokml: Sky

Norsk nynorsk: Sky

Polski: Chmura

Portugus: Nuvem

Slovenina: Oblak

Suomi: pilvi

Svenska: Moln



See also: Fog, Mist

See Category:Unidentified clouds

Wolken in Sebnitz – Sachsen – Germany – Panoramaaufnahme

Clouds from A320 Window over midwestern U.S.

Clouds, as viewed from a plane, flying from Pittsburgh to New York La Guardia.

clouds (sight from airplane)

Sight from airplane (Milano-Girona)

Stratocumulus over the Channel Sea

Cumulus over the China Sea

Marine clouds over Los Angeles

Over Florida heading west.

Thunderstorms over Brazil, seen from space shuttle Challenger in 1984

See also: Category:Satellite photos

London, Clouds over Trafalgar square

Cornwall St-Michaels Mount

Colourful cloud formation

Dark clouds coming to Haldensee, Tirol, Austria.

Clouds over Radolne Lake in Kashubia, Poland

Clouds over Radolne Lake in Kashubia, Poland

90 mile beach, Lakes Entrance

Stacked formation of lenticular clouds

Standing wave clouds formed in the lee of Mt. Imitos

Above the stratocumulus looking at multi-layers of clouds

Approaching rain line with a thunderstorm

Cloud wall associated with fast moving cold front

Cloud in Marokko from airplane

Clouds arrange itself coincidentally to extend the trail

Airplane flying into clouds

Twilight, just moments before Sunrise

See also category: Cloud cover.

See also: Clouds in art, Category:Clouds in art

Fjodor Alexandrowitsch Wassiljew: Cloud, 1860

Cloud – Wikimedia Commons

A-500 PRO Cloud Media

Weight 3 kg Chipset

Sigma Designs SMP8758

1.2GHz ARM Cortex A9 Dual Core

Mali-400 MP4


HDMI 1.4, Component

ESS SABRE32 Audio DAC, ES9018K2M

XLR: Frequency Range: 20Hz 20kHz THD+N Ratio: -114dB (1kHz at 0dBFS, 20kHz LPF) Signal-to-Noise Ratio: 122dB (A-weighted)

RCA: Frequency Range: 20Hz 20kHz THD+N Ratio: -108dB (1kHz at 0dBFS, 20kHz LPF) Signal-to-Noise Ratio: 117dB (A-weighted)

Headphone: Frequency Range: 20Hz 20kHz THD+N Ratio: -89dB (1kHz at 0dBFS, 20kHz LPF) Signal-to-Noise Ratio: 99dB (A-weighted)

Optical & Coaxial S/PDIF (up to 192kHz Sampling Rate)

Two USB 2.0 Host, USB 3.0 Slave, SD Card Reader, Gigabit Ethernet, IR Extender Port, Internal SATA, IR Remote Control, Dual-Boot Switch, 12V 5A Power Adapter

BL-WDN600 (MT7610U 802.11ac), WN-150 (Realtek RTL8192), WN-160 (Ralink RT3070)

Apps Market, Music Home User Interface, Media Home User Interface, Networked Media Jukebox


Main Profile @L4.1, Main 10 Profile @L4.1


* up to DSD512

DTS, DTS-HD HR, DTS-HD MA, DTS:X, Dolby Digital, Dolby Digital Plus, Dolby TrueHD, Dolby ATMOS, AAC, WMA Pro





SRT, MicroDVD SUB, SSA/ASS, SUB/IDX, PGS, SMI, OpenSubtitles

BT Downloader, Usenet Downloader, NAS function

Linux, Android

NMJ Navigator & Mobile NMJ apps on Android and iOS

See more here:
A-500 PRO Cloud Media

Media Cloud Server – ADLINK Technology

For Video Processing Applications

Media applications are mobile. People want the flexibility to access applications from any device, anywhere, anytime, without compromising quality due to latency or visualization. In order to provide media application flexibility and deal with the explosive growth of video data, digital security surveillance and video streaming service providers are moving their video service applications to the cloud. Video conferencing service providers are following suit, because moving the conferencing server to the cloud makes it possible to share conferencing resources more efficiently. In addition, the introduction of cloud-friendly Web Real-Time Communication (WebRTC) brings the benefit of a pure browser-based, plug-in free client.

To stay ahead of cloud migration in the media market, video service providers must find a way to move their services to the cloud. On the other hand, they must also make efforts to add new eye-catching video services to their cloud-based media products. Therefore, we’ve seen many fashionable media terms popping out in recent years, such as 4K video, video-based social networking, web-based video conferencing, and cloud-based video analytics. These new video services require a cloud-friendly hardware architecture and faster video processing speed, which present more media processing challenges to the video service providers.

ADLINK Media Cloud Server with MediaManager software provide a high-performance Application Ready Intelligent Platform (ARiP) for video services, allowing the customer to conquer media processing challenges in the cloud era.

Learn more about ADLINK MediaManager

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Media Cloud Server – ADLINK Technology

U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 …

U.S. Federal cloud computing market will surpass $10 billion by 2020, growing at CAGR 16.2% in the period 2015-2020

The U.S. government has laid out broad plans for the implementation of cloud computing in the federal government infrastructure, a step reflecting a fundamental re-examination of investments in technology infrastructure, fueling double-digit growth in this very dynamic market segment of federal IT.

Among report findings:

The report provides detailed year-by-year (2015 2020) forecasts for the following U.S. Federal Government market segments:

U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015 2020, Tabular Analysis, January 2016, Pages: 28, Figures: 23, Tables: 7, Single User Price: $5,950.00 Reports are delivered in PDF format within 24 hours. Analysis provides quantitative market research information in a concise tabular format. The tables/charts present a focused snapshot of the market dynamics. Inc. (Ohio, USA) is an authorized retailer for goods and services provided by Market Research Media Ltd.

U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015 2020, Tabular Analysis, January 2016, Pages: 28, Figures: 23, Tables: 7, Global Site License: $9,950.00 Reports are delivered in PDF format within 24 hours. Analysis provides quantitative market research information in a concise tabular format. The tables/charts present a focused snapshot of the market dynamics. Inc. (Ohio, USA) is an authorized retailer for goods and services provided by Market Research Media Ltd.

Table of Contents 1. Market Report Scope & Methodology 1.1. Scope 1.2. Research Methodology

2. Executive Summary 2.1. Key Report Findings 3. U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market in Figures 2015-2020 3.1. Department of Defense: Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 3.2. Civilian Agencies: Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 3.3. U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 by Defense and Civilian Agencies 3.4. U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 by SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS 3.5. U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020: Cloud Transition and Management Services 3.6. U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020 by Investment Type 3.7. U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020: Mobile Cloud Services

List of Figures Fig. 1- Historical U.S. Federal IT Spending Pattern 2001-2010, $Bln Fig. 2- The Number of the U.S. Government Data Centers in 1998 2010 and Target for 2015 Fig. 3- Typical Data Center Annual Costs, $Mln Fig. 4- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020, $Mln Fig. 5- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market as Percent of Federal IT Budget, % Fig. 6- DoD: Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 by Agency, $Mln Fig. 7- Cumulative DoD Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020 by Agency, % Fig. 8- Top Ten Civilian Agencies by Cloud Computing Market Size 2015-2020, $Mln Fig. 9- Cumulative U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market by Defense and Civilian Agencies 2015-2020, % Fig. 10- U.S. Federal IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) Market Forecast 2015-2020, $Mln Fig. 11- U.S. Federal PaaS (Platform as a Service) Market Forecast 2015-2020, $Mln Fig. 12- U.S. Federal SaaS (Software as a Service) Market Forecast 2015-2020, $Mln Fig. 13- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020: Cloud Transition and Management Services, $Mln Fig. 14- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020: Cloud Transition and Management Services by Segments, $Mln Fig. 15- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020: Cloud Transition and Management Services by Segments, CAGR % Fig. 16- Market Segment Dynamics 2015-2020: Cloud Transition and Management Fig. 17- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020: Cloud Planning and Transition to the Cloud, $Mln Fig. 18- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020: Interoperability & Middleware, $Mln Fig. 19- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020: Personnel Training, $Mln Fig. 20- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020: Compliance and Security Services, $Mln Fig. 21- U.S. Federal Cumulative Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020 by Investment Type, % Fig. 22- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020 by Investment Type, $Mln Fig. 23- U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020: Mobile Cloud Services, $Mln

List of Tables Table 1 U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020, $Mln Table 2 DoD: Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 by Agency, $Mln Table 3 Civilian Agencies: Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 by Agency, $Mln Table 4 U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market by Defense and Civilian Agencies 2015-2020, $Mln Table 5 U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 by SaaS, PaaS and IaaS, $Mln Table 6 U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020: Cloud Transition and Management Services Table 7 U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market 2015-2020: Mobile Cloud Services, $Mln

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U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Market Forecast 2015-2020 …

Amazon CloudFront Content Delivery Network (CDN)

Amazon CloudFront can be used to deliver your entire website, including dynamic, static, streaming, and interactive content using a global network of edge locations. Requests for your content are automatically routed to the nearest edge location, so content is delivered with the best possible performance. Amazon CloudFront is optimized to work with other Amazon Web Services, like Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3), Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2), Amazon Elastic Load Balancing, and Amazon Route 53. Amazon CloudFront also works seamlessly with any non-AWS origin server, which stores the original, definitive versions of your files. Like other Amazon Web Services products, there are no long-term contracts or minimum monthly usage commitments for using Amazon CloudFront you pay only for as much or as little content as you actually deliver through the content delivery service.

Using a network of edge locations around the world, Amazon CloudFront caches copies of your static content close to viewers, lowering latency when they download your objects and giving you the high, sustained data transfer rates needed to deliver large popular objects to end users at scale. Requests for your dynamic content are carried back to your origin servers running in Amazon Web Services (e.g., Amazon EC2, Elastic Load Balancing) over optimized network paths for a more reliable and consistent experience. These network paths are constantly monitored by Amazon and connections from CloudFront edge locations to the origin are reused to serve your dynamic content from our content delivery network (CDN) with the best possible performance.

A single API call lets you get started distributing content from your Amazon S3 bucket or Amazon EC2 instance or other origin server through the Amazon CloudFront network. Or, interact with Amazon CloudFront through the AWS Management Consoles simple graphical user interface. There is no need to create separate domains for your static and dynamic content. With CloudFront, you can just use the same domain name to point to all of your website content. Any changes you make to your existing configuration take effect across the entire global network within minutes. Plus, since theres no need to negotiate with a sales person, you can get started quickly and begin delivering your entire website using Amazon CloudFront.

Amazon CloudFront is designed for use with other Amazon Web Services, including Amazon S3, where you can durably store the definitive versions of your static files, and Amazon EC2, where you can run your application server for dynamically generated content. If you are using Amazon S3 or Amazon EC2 as an origin server, data transferred from the origin server to edge locations (Amazon CloudFront origin fetches) will be billed at a lower price than Internet data transfer out of Amazon S3 or Amazon EC2. Amazon CloudFront also integrates with Elastic Load Balancing. For instance, you can deploy your web application on Amazon EC2 servers behind Elastic Load Balancing and use Amazon CloudFront to deliver your entire website. Learn more about pricing for all AWS services.

Amazon CloudFront passes on the benefits of Amazons scale to you. You pay only for the content that you deliver through the network, without minimum commitments or up-front fees. This applies for any type of content that you deliver static, dynamic, streaming media, or a web application with any combination of these.

With Amazon CloudFront, you dont need to worry about maintaining expensive web-server capacity to meet the demand from potential traffic spikes for your content. The service automatically responds as demand increases or decreases without any intervention from you. Amazon CloudFront also uses multiple layers of caching at each edge location and collapses simultaneous requests for the same object before contacting your origin server. These optimizations further help reduce the need to scale your origin infrastructure as your website becomes more popular.

Amazon CloudFront is built using Amazons highly reliable infrastructure. The distributed nature of edge locations used by Amazon CloudFront automatically routes end users to the closest available location as required by network conditions. Origin requests from the edge locations to AWS origin servers (e.g., Amazon EC2, Amazon S3, etc.) are carried over network paths that Amazon constantly monitors and optimizes for both availability and performance.

Amazon CloudFront uses a global network of edge locations, located near your end users in the United States, Europe, Asia, and South America and Australia.

There are many great use cases for Amazon CloudFront, including:

A typical website generally contains a mix of static content and dynamic content. Static content includes images or style sheets; dynamic or application generated content includes elements of your site that are personalized to each viewer. A website may also have forms that a user submits to log in, search or post a comment.

You can use a single CloudFront distribution as a content distribution network to deliver your entire website, including both static and dynamic or interactive content to the end users to content uploaded by the end user to the origin. This means that you can continue to use a single domain name (e.g., for your entire website without the need to separate your static and dynamic content. Meanwhile, you can still continue to use separate origin servers for different types of content on your website. Amazon CloudFront provides you with granular control for configuring multiple origin servers and caching properties for different URLs on your website. These performance optimizations and functionality can help speed up the download of your entire website which can help lower site abandonment.

Amazon CloudFront can help improve performance of your entire website in the following ways:

Amazon CloudFront is a good choice for software developers who wish to distribute applications, updates or other downloadable software to end users. Amazon CloudFronts high data transfer rates speed up downloading your applications, improving the customer experience and lowering your costs. Amazon CloudFront also offers lower prices than Amazon S3 at higher usage tiers.

If your application involves rich media audio or video that is frequently accessed, you will benefit from Amazon CloudFronts lower data transfer prices and improved data transfer speeds. Amazon CloudFront offers multiple options for delivering your media files both pre-recorded media and live media.

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Amazon CloudFront Content Delivery Network (CDN)

Media Services – Audio & video streaming | Microsoft Azure

What is Media Services?

Azure Media Services powers consumer and enterprise streaming solutions worldwide. Combining powerful and highly scalable cloud-based encoding, encryption, and steaming components, Media Services helps customers with valuable and premium video content easily reach larger audiences on todays most popular digital devices, such as tablets and mobile phones. Live broadcastersof sporting events, news, concerts, town meetings, and moreand linear channel operators offering popular over-the-top programming and services are turning to Azure as their platform of choice.

Additionally, with exciting new features such as Azure Media Indexer to enhance discoverability, cross-platform players to simplify distribution, cloud DVR capabilities to move easily from live content to on-demand programming, and a large ecosystem of value-added third-party partners, Media Services is truly providing customers with video content as a best-in-class solution. Come have a look yourself, and see how Media Services can power your end-to-end media workflow.

Quickly deliver scalable subscription video on demand (VOD), transactional VOD, advertising VOD, and over-the-top services. Use our CDSA- and ISO-certified cloud to reduce costs and deliver content to multiple platforms from Azure data centers worldwide.

Support common encryption and multiple DRM technology such as Microsoft PlayReady and Google Widevine, or Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) to protect your content.

Seamlessly integrate with the Media Services streaming platform to lower costs by encoding once and delivering in multiple formats with dynamic packaging.

Azure Media Encoder and Media Encoder Premium offer studio-grade encoding at cloud scale.

Media Services is a highly flexible platform capable of handling everything from small scale local events to the largest events on the planet like the FIFA World Cup and the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics.

Use cases include event based streaming and 24×7 linear streaming with cloud DVR workflows.

Media Services is a great platform for enabling businesses large and small to reach their employees and customers. The platform capabilities, combined with partner solutions, make it easy to do more with video in your organization. Its been used by several enterprises for purposes such as training, corporate communication, and council meetings. Media Services provides scalable, always-available, secure delivery of video to both employees and external customers via the Azure website.

Azure Content Delivery Network lets you deliver high-bandwidth content to users around the world with low latency and high availability via a robust network of global data centers. It sends audio, video, applications, images, and other files to users from the nearest servers. This dramatically increases speed and availability, resulting in significant user experience improvements. Learn more

Studio Grade encoding at Cloud Scale

Learn more

A single player for all your playback needs

Learn more

Enhance discoverability and accessibility of media

Learn more

Securely deliver content using AES or multi-DRM

Learn more

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Media Services – Audio & video streaming | Microsoft Azure

Media Cloud – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Media Cloud is an open-source content analysis tool that aims to map news media coverage of current events. It “performs five basic functions — media definition, crawling, text extraction, word vectoring, and analysis.”[1] Media cloud “tracks hundreds of newspapers and thousands of Web sites and blogs, and archives the information in a searchable form. The database … enable[s] researchers to search for key people, places and events from Michael Jackson to the Iranian elections and find out precisely when, where and how frequently they are covered.”[2] Media Cloud was developed by the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University and launched in March 2009.[3][4] It’s distributed under the GNU GPL 3+.[5]

As of October 2011, Media Cloud tracks news from mostly U.S. sources. It “collects news stories” in sets from:[6]

On May 6, 2011 the Berkman Center relaunched Media Cloud, a platform designed to let scholars, journalists and anyone interested in the world of media ask and answer quantitative questions about media attention. For more than a year, weve been collecting roughly 50,000 English-language stories a day from 17,000 media sources, including major mainstream media outlets, left and right-leaning American political blogs, as well as from 1000 popular general interest blogs.[7] The data was used to analyze the differences in coverage of international crises in professional and citizen media and to study the rapid shifts in media attention that have accompanied the flood of breaking news thats characterized early 2011.[7] International research has lead way to publishing of new research that uses Media Cloud to help us understand the structure of professional and citizen media in Russia and in Egypt.[7] The relaunch of Media Cloud allows users who are interested in using its tools to analyze what bloggers and journalists are paying attention to, ignoring, celebrating or condemning.”[7]

First, Media Cloud chooses a set of media sources and uncovers the feeds for each.[1] Each feed is then crawled in order to determine if any stories have been added to any feed.[1] All content is then extracted of each relevant story. Any advertisements or other navigation pages are left behind.[1] The text of each story is broken down into word counts, which shows the different word choices that each media source uses in discussing any relevant topic.[1]The word counts are then analyzed and published to show data trends.[1]

Media Cloud was used from September 2010 through January 2012 to obtain data for a study at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society that analyzed a set of 9,757 online stories related to the COICA-SOPA-PIPA debate. The open source application was utilized for the text and link analysis portion of the research.[8] Findings from this research were published in July 2013[2].

The Berkman Center for Internet & Society website offers an interactive visualization map[3] from this study, which was created to depict media sources (nodes, which appear as circles on the map with different colors denoting different media types) [and] track media sources and their linkages within discrete time slices and allows users to zoom into the controversy to see which entities are present in the debate during a given period[8] This map allows for the visualization of how the COICA-SOPA-PIPA controversy evolved over time by using link analysis.

Many companies are taking advantage of the ability to analyze and organize this new data that media cloud can create. Companies such as RAMP offer a “cloud-based” way to analyze and create every type of metadata.[9]

Media cloud’s key functionality comes from using web crawling to periodically fetch articles from various sources and then break them down into words that are counted. These word counts are then analyzed to determine what sources are saying about certain news.[1] This process is not unique to Media Cloud and in fact is an application of the recently popular stream algorithms. These are algorithms characterized by operating on a continuous and unending stream of data, rather than waiting for a complete batch of information to be assembled. These algorithms are very useful because they allow monitoring of trends without having to know which topics are going to be the most popular. This type of functionality first noticeably emerged with network managers trying to dynamically see which sites have the highest traffic volumes. From there, stream algorithms have been used to have programs dynamically act on financial information, and by researchers whose experiments generate more data than can be analyzed, so stream algorithms are used to dynamically filter the initial data.[10] Media cloud has similarly taken advantage of the functionality of stream algorithms to dynamically associate words to news as it crawls through various sources, and then provide its signature service of generating sentences based on words that the users are interested in and related media reports.

The day that Media Cloud relaunched, Ethan Zuckerman said, “We hope the tools we’re providing are a complement to amazing efforts like Project for Excellence in Journalism’s News Coverage and New Media indices–we consider their tools the gold standard for understanding what topics are discussed in American media. PEJ works their magic using talented teams of coders, who sample different corners of the media ecosystem to find out what’s being discussed. We use huge data sets, algorithms, and automation to give a different picture, one focused on language instead of topic.”[7]

Future uses for Media Cloud can involve smart phone or tablet applications to introduce the platform to users away from a computer. A Media Cloud app could serve as a news source while on the go for users. If Media Cloud were to expand into different information sites, it could target social media sites and incorporate news into them. Twitter and Facebook have incorporated features for trending news and topics similar to what Media Cloud aims to do.

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Media Cloud – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nebula – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A nebula (Latin for “cloud”;[2] pl. nebulae, nebul, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases. Originally, nebula was a name for any diffuse astronomical object, including galaxies beyond the Milky Way. The Andromeda Galaxy, for instance, was referred to as the Andromeda Nebula (and spiral galaxies in general as “spiral nebulae”) before the true nature of galaxies was confirmed in the early 20th century by Vesto Slipher, Edwin Hubble and others.

Most nebulae are of vast size, even hundreds of light years in diameter.[3] Although denser than the space surrounding them, most nebulae are far less dense than any vacuum created in an Earthen environment – a nebular cloud the size of the Earth would have a total mass of only a few kilograms. Nebulae are often star-forming regions, such as in the “Pillars of Creation” in the Eagle Nebula. In these regions the formations of gas, dust, and other materials “clump” together to form larger masses, which attract further matter, and eventually will become massive enough to form stars. The remaining materials are then believed to form planets and other planetary system objects.

Around 150 AD, Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy) recorded, in books VII-VIII of his Almagest, five stars that appeared nebulous. He also noted a region of nebulosity between the constellations Ursa Major and Leo that was not associated with any star.[4] The first true nebula, as distinct from a star cluster, was mentioned by the Persian/Muslim astronomer, Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, in his Book of Fixed Stars (964).[5] He noted “a little cloud” where the Andromeda Galaxy is located.[6] He also cataloged the Omicron Velorum star cluster as a “nebulous star” and other nebulous objects, such as Brocchi’s Cluster.[5] The supernova that created the Crab Nebula, the SN 1054, was observed by Arabic and Chinese astronomers in 1054.[7][8]

In 1610, Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc discovered the Orion Nebula using a telescope. This nebula was also observed by Johann Baptist Cysat in 1618. However, the first detailed study of the Orion Nebula wouldn’t be performed until 1659 by Christiaan Huygens, who also believed himself to be the first person to discover this nebulosity.[6]

In 1715, Edmund Halley published a list of six nebulae.[9] This number steadily increased during the century, with Jean-Philippe de Cheseaux compiling a list of 20 (including eight not previously known) in 1746. From 175153, Nicolas Louis de Lacaille cataloged 42 nebulae from the Cape of Good Hope, with most of them being previously unknown. Charles Messier then compiled a catalog of 103 “nebulae” (now called Messier objects, which included what are now known to be galaxies) by 1781; his interest was detecting comets, and these were objects that might be mistaken for them.[10]

The number of nebulae was then greatly expanded by the efforts of William Herschel and his sister Caroline Herschel. Their Catalogue of One Thousand New Nebulae and Clusters of Stars was published in 1786. A second catalog of a thousand was published in 1789 and the third and final catalog of 510 appeared in 1802. During much of their work, William Herschel believed that these nebulae were merely unresolved clusters of stars. In 1790, however, he discovered a star surrounded by nebulosity and concluded that this was a true nebulosity, rather than a more distant cluster.[10]

Beginning in 1864, William Huggins examined the spectra of about 70 nebulae. He found that roughly a third of them had the emission spectrum of a gas. The rest showed a continuous spectrum and thus were thought to consist of a mass of stars.[11][12] A third category was added in 1912 when Vesto Slipher showed that the spectrum of the nebula that surrounded the star Merope matched the spectra of the Pleiades open cluster. Thus the nebula radiates by reflected star light.[13]

In about 1922, following the Great Debate, it had become clear that many “nebulae” were in fact galaxies far from our own.

Slipher and Edwin Hubble continued to collect the spectra from many diffuse nebulae, finding 29 that showed emission spectra and 33 had the continuous spectra of star light.[12] In 1922, Hubble announced that nearly all nebulae are associated with stars, and their illumination comes from star light. He also discovered that the emission spectrum nebulae are nearly always associated with stars having spectral classifications of B1 or hotter (including all O-type main sequence stars), while nebulae with continuous spectra appear with cooler stars.[14] Both Hubble and Henry Norris Russell concluded that the nebulae surrounding the hotter stars are transformed in some manner.[12]

Many nebulae or stars form from the gravitational collapse of gas in the interstellar medium or ISM. As the material collapses under its own weight, massive stars may form in the center, and their ultraviolet radiation ionizes the surrounding gas, making it visible at optical wavelengths. Examples of these types of nebulae are the Rosette Nebula and the Pelican Nebula. The size of these nebulae, known as HII regions, varies depending on the size of the original cloud of gas. New stars are formed in the nebulae. The formed stars are sometimes known as a young, loose cluster.

Some nebulae are formed as the result of supernova explosions, the death throes of massive, short-lived stars. The materials thrown off from the supernova explosion are ionized by the energy and the compact object that it can produce. One of the best examples of this is the Crab Nebula, in Taurus. The supernova event was recorded in the year 1054 and is labelled SN 1054. The compact object that was created after the explosion lies in the center of the Crab Nebula and is a neutron star.

Other nebulae may form as planetary nebulae. This is the final stage of a low-mass star’s life, like Earth’s Sun. Stars with a mass up to 810 solar masses evolve into red giants and slowly lose their outer layers during pulsations in their atmospheres. When a star has lost enough material, its temperature increases and the ultraviolet radiation it emits can ionize the surrounding nebula that it has thrown off.

Objects named nebulae belong to four major groups. Before their nature was understood, galaxies (“spiral nebulae”) and star clusters too distant to be resolved as stars were also classified as nebulae, but no longer are.

Not all cloud-like structures are named nebulae; HerbigHaro objects are an example.

Most nebulae can be described as diffuse nebulae, which means that they are extended and contain no well-defined boundaries.[17] In visible light these nebulae may be divided into emission and reflection nebulae. Emission nebulae emit spectral line radiation from ionized gas (mostly ionized hydrogen);[18] they are often called HII regions (the term “HII” is used in professional astronomy to refer to ionized hydrogen).

Reflection nebulae themselves do not emit significant amounts of visible light, but are near stars and reflect light from them.[18] Similar nebulae not illuminated by stars do not exhibit visible radiation, but may be detected as opaque clouds blocking light from luminous objects behind them; they are called “dark nebulae”.[18]

Although these nebulae have different visibility at optical wavelengths, they are all bright sources of infrared emission, chiefly from dust within the nebulae.[18]

Planetary nebulae form from the gaseous shells that are ejected from low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars when they transform into white dwarfs.[18] They are emission nebulae with spectra similar to those of emission nebulae found in star formation regions.[18] Technically they are HII regions, because most hydrogen will be ionized, but they are denser and more compact than the nebulae in star formation regions.[18] Planetary nebulae were given their name by the first astronomical observers who became able to distinguish them from planets, who tended to confuse them with planets, of more interest to them. Our Sun is expected to spawn a planetary nebula about 12 billion years after its formation.[19]

A protoplanetary nebula (PPN) is an astronomical object which is at the short-lived episode during a star’s rapid stellar evolution between the late asymptotic giant branch (LAGB) phase and the following planetary nebula (PN) phase.[20] During the AGB phase, the star undergoes mass loss, emitting a circumstellar shell of hydrogen gas. When this phase comes to an end, the star enters the PPN phase.

The PPN is energized by the central star, causing it to emit strong infrared radiation and become a reflection nebula. Collaminated stellar winds from the central star shape and shock the shell into an axially symmetric form, while producing a fast moving molecular wind.[21] The exact point when a PPN becomes a planetary nebula (PN) is defined by the temperature of the central star. The PPN phase continues until the central star reaches a temperature of 30,000 K, after which is it hot enough to ionize the surrounding gas.[22]

A supernova occurs when a high-mass star reaches the end of its life. When nuclear fusion in the core of the star stops, the star collapses. The gas falling inward either rebounds or gets so strongly heated that it expands outwards from the core, thus causing the star to explode.[18] The expanding shell of gas forms a supernova remnant, a special diffuse nebula.[18] Although much of the optical and X-ray emission from supernova remnants originates from ionized gas, a great amount of the radio emission is a form of non-thermal emission called synchrotron emission.[18] This emission originates from high-velocity electrons oscillating within magnetic fields.

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Nebula – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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SANGRE GRANDE ( Ojoe Rd & Sangre Grande Roundabout)


Diego Martin


Pt Fortin

Contact us if you have a prime location to rent.


We are always looking to provide the ideal products. If you have ideas how we can make a better product

or serve you better, wed love to hear from you.

Send us a quick note using the form to the bottom or call us at (868) 289-0189)

The Ariapita Avenue location is located just off the busy intersection at Lapeyrouse Cemetary facing the west bound traffic. Also visible as commuters turn left unto Ariapita from road alongside Powergen.The board is strategically located by Amnesia Club to also appeal to pedestrian traffic and party go-ers. Size 7ft x 10ft

At EMR Tunapuna the billboard welcomes the commuters travelling

east to Tunapuna just after the bend at Exodus pan yard. It is surrounded by major shopping facilities such as Auzonville Mall, large private hospital and health services, commercial banks including ScotiaBank, IBL Bank and FCB Bank. At night the area around the billboard is still very active since Go Figure Fitness gym is open to its members as late as 10pm. Traffic flow is gridlocked in this area for more than 18 hours daily as the busy Tunapuna Market area is just a few buildings away. Size 10ft x 14 ft

Strategically placed to ensure viewing from two lines of traffic at the traffic lights of the busy intersection. The vehicles proceeding North from Trincity Mall turn on to the Eastern Main Rd to face the Billboard and Vehicles are set in Westbound lane for more than 20 mins all day before crossing lights and proceeding past the Billboard. Clients ads are viewed more than 3 times in a rotation from this lane of traffic.

7ft x10ft

163 Eastern Main Road, Tunapuna,Trinidad. W.I.


call: (868) 289-0189

Trincity (Dinsley Junction)

Corner EMR & Curepe Junction

The town that is labelled the public transport central of Trinidad has a bustling flow of commuters, pedestrians, buses and taxis. Cloud’s Premier billboard is strategically placed opposite the PTSC bus terminal to be viewed by all lines of traffic and even as far as the popular Southern Main Road doubles and fast food outlets. Also within the vicinity are Banking ATMs and roads leading to the University of the West Indies St. Augustine Campus. Size 7ft x 10ft

This 14ft by 24ft Billboard is located immediately after the UWI St. Augustine intersection and can be seen from as far as the Pasea Tunapuna traffic lights. The traffic flow alongside this billboard is standstill throughout the day and the board is strategically positioned to appeal to the East Bound evening traffic. At instances the viewing audience is actually 6 lanes of standstill highway traffic.

At this location the billboard is located on the Ojoe Rd along side the Sangre Grande taxi stand facing the busy Sangre Grande roundabout. The pedestrian traffic to and from this taxi stand are in the hundreds daily and the vehicular traffic at the roundabout is at a constant standstill throughout the day allowing the viewers of this billboard to view ads for at least a period of 3-5 mins.


See our premier digital billboards strategically located at the following locations:

Located on the Eastern Main Road opposite FCB bank and RBC and between two Republic bank Branches. On the compound of popular S and S Bar and Lounge. The traffic heading east is usually at a standstill for more than 5 minutes especially on evenings from 2pm to 8pm. 8ft x 14ft

Located at Issac Junction Couva. This 8ft x14ft Billboard is strategically placed to be seen by vehicles approaching from the highway and to be seen by persons visiting KFC, JTA supermarket and Subway. Also at this Subway spot is a Taxi Hub which allows for pedestrians awaiting transport to view the board daily.

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Cloud Media Marketing

Message from Kayleigh Apicerno, Owner of CMM

For the past few years, I have had this crazy idea to start my own business. The beginning of 2015 seemed to be the right time to finally take the plunge.

What do I want to do with this business? My mission is to give you the understanding and skills you need to be able to be comfortable with social media and mobile technology. For the individual, the goal is to become familiar with the various platforms and learn how to use them.

For the small business owner, the goal is to understand and be able to leverage social media to reach your marketing goals.There are companies out there that will set up all of your accounts and post on your behalf. What I have learned is that many (if not most) small businesses want to keep the control and do not want someone who is not a part of their business to speak directly to their customers. The problem is that these small businesses are busy doing what they are good at and do not have the time or the skills to be able to keep up with social media.

Here is a little bit more about me: I have been an active social media user and blogger for over ten years, starting with Facebook and MySpace back in college. I have been a professional blogger and an admin on a dozen or so Facebook Pages. I have also created over a hundred pieces of content (edited photos, infographics, facebook cover photos, event flyers, etc) for a variety of social media campaigns and events.

When I am not working, I volunteer. I am currently serving as Chair for the Young Emerging Professionals (a Committee of the Greater Valley Chamber of Commerce), I am a board member ofMy City Kitchen, the web master ofSeymour Historical Societywebsite, and I volunteer with other community projects.

In 2014, I was awarded a Volunteer Appreciation award from the Seymour Historical Society and was one of the four Honorees of Women Making A Difference In The Valley. I am a 2013 graduate of the Leadership Greater Valley Program, and I have a Bachelors Degree in Business Administration with a concentration in Marketing from Southern CT State University.

Here is where you can find me online: Facebook: /CloudMediaMkt Twitter: @Kayleighs_Cloud Tumblr: GreatfulEveryDay Pinterest: Kayleigha14 Google+: +KayleighGoogle+: +CloudMediaMkt Instagram: Kayleighs_Cloud

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